R/C2/Introduction-to-RStudio/English

From Script | Spoken-Tutorial
Jump to: navigation, search

Title of script: Introduction to R Studio

Authors: Shaik Sameer (IIIT Vadodara) and Sudhakar Kumar (IIT Bombay)

Keywords: R, RStudio, workspace, console, packages, video tutorial

Visual Cue Narration
Show slide

Opening slide

Welcome to this tutorial on Introduction to R Studio.
Show slide

Objectives

In this tutorial, you will learn about these features of RStudio:
  • Source and Console windows
  • Workspace; Plots and Files window
  • How to install packages of R
Show slide

Pre-requisites

To understand this tutorial, you should know:
  • Elementary Maths
  • Basic commands of R

If not, please locate the relevant tutorials on R on this website.

Show slide

Systems requirements

This tutorial is recorded on
  • Ubuntu Linux OS 16.04
  • R version 3.2.3
  • RStudio version 1.1.456

Install R version 3.2.0 or higher.

[RStudio]

RStudio window

Let us switch to RStudio.
Highlight the Source window The window in the top left corner is the Source window.

It is used to edit a script and run it.

Highlight the Console window The window in the bottom left corner is the Console window.

It is used to install packages or to run a particular command.

Highlight the Workspace window

Highlight Environment tab

The upper right window is the Workspace window.

It stores all the variables used during execution of commands under the Environment tab.

Place cursor on the inside edges of all the windows.

Point to the four-headed arrow.

Place your cursor on the inside edges of all the windows.

A four-headed arrow symbol appears.

Drag this to resize windows for better visibility. You can drag this to resize your windows for better visibility.
Let us declare some variables.
Type testSample <- c(1,2,3,4) in Console In the Console, type testSample (capital S) space less than symbol followed by hyphen space c.

Now, in parentheses, type 1 comma 2 comma 3 comma 4.

Press Enter to execute this line.

Highlight the testSample in Environment tab You can see the variable testSample in the Environment window.
Highlight the Plots and Files window The lower right window is the Plots and Files window.
Highlight the Files tab The Files tab is used to keep track of Working Directories.

We will learn more about Working Directory later in this series.

Highlight the Plots tab The Plots tab shows all the graphical output.
Let us plot the variable testSample.
Type plot(testSample) in the Console window

Highlight the output plot

In the Console, type plot testSample capital S in parentheses. Press Enter.

You can now see the plot in the Plots window.

Highlight the Environment tab Let us look at the Environment window in the upper right corner.
Highlight testSample

Highlight broom-shaped icon in Environment

We will clear this variable in this window.

At the top of the Environment window, click on the broom icon.

In Confirm Remove Objects window >> check Include hidden objects >> click on Yes A Confirm Remove Objects window appears.

Ensure that the box Include hidden objects is checked and click on Yes.

Highlight Environment tab Now, there is no variable in the Environment.
Click in the Plots window and click on the broom icon. Click in the Plots window and click on the broom icon.
Point to Clear Plots text box. A Clear Plots text box appears.
Point to Clear Plots text box. The text reads, “Are you sure you want to clear all of the plots in the history?”
Click Yes. Click Yes.
Type plot(testSample) in the Console window Now, let us try plotting this variable again.

In the Console, again type plot testSample in parentheses as before.

Press Enter.

Highlight the error in the Console window

Highlight broom-shaped icon in Environment

No plot is generated.

Instead, we see: Error in plot(testSample) : object 'testSample' not found

It means that the variable testSample has been removed from our Workspace.

So, you should be careful with this broom icon in the Environment window.

History tab

Highlight the commands

Next to Environment, the History tab stores all our actions.

Here, we can see the lines that have been executed so far.

Let us declare two variables, firstVar and secondVar, which will be used later.
[Console]

Type firstVar <- 6

In the Console, type first capital V a r space less than symbol followed by hyphen space 6.

Press Enter.

[Console]

Type secondVar <- 8

Next, type second capital V a r space less than symbol followed by hyphen space 8.

Press Enter.

[RStudio]

Press Ctrl+L

Our Console window is filled with the previous commands.

We need to clean the Console before moving on.

Click in the Console window and press Ctrl+L together.

Highlight the broom-shaped icon at the right corner of the Console window Clicking on the broom icon in the upper right corner of the Console will also clear it.

To see this icon, place the cursor under the maximizer button of the Console window.

You will see a hand symbol and the text, Clear Console Ctrl+L.

Show slide

Packages in R

R packages are
  • A collection of R functions, compiled code and sample data
  • Stored under a directory called library in the R environment.

By default, R installs a set of packages

Let us switch back to RStudio.
Click on the Environment tab again. Now click on the Environment tab again.
[RStudio]

Type library()

To see the list of R packages installed in your system, in the Console, type library parentheses.

Press Enter.

Tab R packages available opens in Source window A tab named R packages available opens up in Source window.
Let us install a new package named MASS.

Please make sure that you are connected to the Internet.

[Console]

Type install.packages("MASS")

Highlight the red dot at the right corner of Console

In the Console window, type install dot packages.

Now, MASS inside double quotes in parentheses.

Press Enter.

We will need to wait until R installs the package.

There is another way to install a package. Let us install another package named ggplot2.
Click on the Tools button >>

Select the Install Packages option

In the top menu bar of RStudio, click on the Tools button.

From the drop-down menu, select the Install Packages option.

In Packages, type ggplot2 In the Packages field, type the name of the package ggplot2
Check the box Install dependencies >> click on the Install button Ensure that Install dependencies box is checked and click on the Install button.
[RStudio]

Type library(MASS) in the Console window

To load a package, we use library function and provide the package name as an argument.

We will load the MASS package now.

In the Console window, type library MASS in parentheses and press Enter.

Now we will use fractions function available in the MASS package.
[RStudio]

Type f r a c t i o.

Point to the fractions option.

Press Enter to select.

In the Console window, type f r a c t.

RStudio shows the fractions option.

Press Enter to select it.

You can use this feature while typing commands.

Only remember that R is case-sensitive.

[RStudio]

Type fractions(firstVar/secondVar)

Highlight ¾ in the Console

After fractions, type, in parentheses, firstVar division slash secondVar.

Press Enter.

You can see the reduced fraction ¾ in the Console.

Type firstVar/secondVar in the Console


Highlight the output in decimal

In the Console, we can also type firstVar division slash secondVar.

It gives the result in decimal form.

This brings us to the end of this tutorial. Let us summarize.
Show slide

Summary

We have learnt about,
  • Source and Console windows
  • Workspace; Plots and Files window
  • How to install packages of R
Show slide

Assignment

We now suggest an assignment.
  • Install plyr package and load it.
Show slide

About the Spoken Tutorial Project

The video at the following link summarises the Spoken Tutorial project.

Please download and watch it.

Show slide

Spoken Tutorial Workshops

We conduct workshops using Spoken Tutorials and give certificates.

Please contact us.

Show Slide

Forum to answer questions

Do you have questions in THIS Spoken Tutorial?

Choose the minute and second where you have the question.

Explain your question briefly.

Someone from the FOSSEE team will answer them.

Please visit this site.

Show Slide

Forum to answer questions

Do you have any general / technical questions?

Please visit the forum given in the link.

Show Slide

Textbook Companion

The FOSSEE team coordinates coding of solved examples of popular books.

We give honorarium and certificates for those who do this.

For more details, please visit these sites.

Show Slide

Acknowledgement

The Spoken Tutorial project is funded by NMEICT, MHRD, Govt. of India
Show Slide

Thank You

This script has been contributed by Shaik (FOSSEE Fellow 2018) and Sudhakar from FOSSEE project.

This is Vidhya Iyer from IIT Bombay signing off. Thanks for watching.

Contributors and Content Editors

Nancyvarkey, Sudhakarst