PhET/C3/Fluidpressureandflow/English
Visual Cue  Narration 
Slide Number 1
Title slide 
Welcome to the spoken tutorial on Fluid Pressure and Flow. 
Slide Number 2
Learning objectives 
In this tutorial we will demonstrate
Fluid Pressure and Flow PhET simulation. 
Slide Number 3
System Requirements 
Here, I am using
Ubuntu Linux OS version 16.04 Java version 1.8.0 
Slide Number 4
Prerequisites 
To follow this tutorial,
Learner should be familiar with the topics in high school physics. 
Slide Number 5
Learning Goals 
Using this simulation,
We will demonstrate

Slide Number 6
Learning Goals 

Slide Number 7
Link for PhET Simulation 
Use the given link to download the simulation. 
Point to the file in the Downloads folder.  I have already downloaded the simulation to my Downloads folder. 
At the prompt type, cd Downloads >> press Enter .  To run this simulation, open the terminal.
At the prompt type, cd space Downloads and press Enter. 
Type, java jar fluidpressureandflow_en.jar and press Enter.
Point to the simulation interface. 
Type java space hyphen jar space fluid hyphen pressure hyphen and hyphen flow underscore en dot jar and press Enter.
Fluid Pressure and Flow simulation opens. 
On the left top corner, point to each Tab.
Pressure Flow Water Tower 
Interface has three tabs. 
Point to each underground tank buttons on the left top.
Click on each button to show the different tank. 
On the left of the screen, we have three buttons.
On clicking each of the buttons a different underground tank opens. 
Click on the button.
Point to the faucet and the container. 
let us click on the first button.
Screen opens with a faucet and a tank. 
Click, drag the faucet slider.  Click and drag the faucet slider to fill the tank with water. 
Click, drag and hold the slider at the bottom of the tank.  Observe that an outlet is provided at the bottom of the tank to drain the fluid.
Drag the slider to drain the fluid. 
Point to the pressure gauge.
Click and drag the pressure gauge into the container. 
Drag and place the Pressure gauge in the tank to touch the fluid. 
Point to Fluid Density and click on the plus sign on the box.  To expand the Fluid Density box, click on the green Plus sign. 
Point to the slider.  Observe that the Fluid Density slider has three different fluids. 
Click and drag the Fluid Density slider to gasoline.  Drag the slider from gasoline to honey.
Observe the change in the Fluid Density as we drag. 
Point to white colour box in Fluid density.  In Fluid density box we can edit the values from 700 kg per meter cube to 1420 kg per meter cube. 
Click on red minus button of the Fluid Density.  Click on the red minus button to close the Fluid density box. 
Point to Gravity.  Click on the green plus button to expand the Gravity box. 
Point to the slider.
Point to gravity value on earth. 
Observe that here a slider is provided to change Gravity from low to high.
The slider is at Earth. 
Click and drag the Gravity slider first towards low then back to high.  As we drag the Gravity slider observe that pressure changes.
Gravity's value can be changed from 1.0 m/s^{2} to 20 m/s^{2}. 
Click on Reset All button.  Click on Reset All button. 
Click, drag the faucet to fill the container.
Point to the slider. 
Drag the faucet slider to fill the tank upto the brim.
Note that once the tank is filled to the brim, faucet slider becomes inactive. 
Click on the Grid check box.  Select the Grid box to show the grid lines. 
Click and drag the Pressure gauge to the water tank at 0 meters.  Drag and place the Pressure gauge on the 0 meters line. 
Move the cursor on pressure gauge.  Here, observe that atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kiloPascal. 
Click on Atmosphere off radio button.  Click on Atmosphere Off radio button.
Value of pressure is 0.00 KiloPascal. 
Move the cursor on Atmosphere radio box.  Click the Atmosphere On radio button.
This indicates that, pressure is measured in the presence of an atmosphere. 
Cursor on the interface.  Next we will measure pressure in different fluids. 
Slide Number 8
Pressure at Different Depth 
We will make a tabular column for Fluid Density, Depth, and Pressure. 
Drag the pressure metre towards 1 m.  To take the measurement drag the Pressure gauge to 1 meter.
Note the value in the table. 
Drag pressure gauge to 2 m.
Drag pressure gauge 3 m. 
Similarly drag pressure gauge to 2 meters and 3 metres and note the values. 
Slide Number 9
Pressure at Different Depth 
I have noted the values in the table. 
Click and drag the slider to gasoline.  Drag the slider towards gasoline. 
Move the cursor on pressure gauge.  Observe the change in pressure as we change the density. 
Click and drag the pressure gauge to 1 m for the gasoline.  Drag the Pressure gauge to 1 meter to measure the pressure in gasoline. 
Slide Number 10
Assignment Note the change in the values of pressure for the given values of depth. Explain your observation. 
As an Assignment,
Note the change in the values of pressure for the given values of depth. Explain your observation. 
Click on the Reset All.  Click on Reset All button. 
Now let's demonstrate the change in pressure as the tank's shape changes.  
Click on the third tank button to open it.  Click on the third tank button.
An underground basin opens. The basin is divided into two compartments. 
Point to the weights.  Observe that there are three weights on the left of the basin instead of a faucet.
One 500 kg and two 250 kg weights. 
Under Units, click on Atmospheres radio button.  Under Units, click on Atmospheres radio button. 
Move the cursor on Pressure.  Observe the value on the pressure gauge.
It has changed from 101.300 kiloPascal to 0.9998 atmospheres. 
Click and drag the pressure gauge to the right of the water tank.  Place the pressure gauge in the right compartment of the basin touching water.
Observe the value on the pressure gauge. 
Click on the Gridcheck box.  Select the Grid check box. 
Click and drag the 250 kg weight in the container.  Place 250 kg weight in the left compartment of the basin.
Observe the change in the water level in the right compartment. 
Click and drag 500 kg' and 250 kg weight to the tank.  Continue to add 500 kg and 250 kg weights to the left compartment.
As we add the weights, notice the increase in water level in the right compartment. This demonstrates the principle of hydraulic lift. 
Move the cursor on the Flow tab.  We will now explore Flow tab. 
Click on the Flow tab.  Select the Flow tab to open the screen. 
Move the cursor on water tube.  In this screen we have a water tube and end pipes. 
Point to the handles.
Click and drag the the upper and lower handle to change the height. 
Each end pipe is provided with three handles.
Height of the pipe can be changed using the upper and lower handles. 
Click and drag the middle handle of the end pipes to move up and down.  We can click and drag the middle handle of the end pipe to move it up and down. 
Point to Flow Rate on the left side of the screen.  We can control the flow rate by dragging the Flow Rate slider. 
Point and click the Flux meter check box.  Now select Flux meter check box. 
Point at the blue ring.
Point at the yellow box. 
A blue coloured ring along with a yellow box appears on the screen.
This box displays the value for Flow Rate, Area and Flux. Using the Flux meter we can calculate the total flux entering a given area. 
Drag the flux through the pipe.  Drag the Flux meter through the pipe.
Observe that blue ring changes its size to adjust the size of the water pipe. 
Point to the blue ring.
Point to the flux that is passing. 
As we drag the ring, observe the value of flux that is passing through it.
The amount of flux passing through the ring depends on its area. 
Uncheck the Flux meter checkbox.  Uncheck the Flux meter checkbox. 
Check the Friction checkbox.  Select Friction checkbox. 
Point to the pipe.  Observe that the flow of dots slows down. 
Point to the Red Dots above the water pipe.  Using the Red Dots button we can insert black dots into the fluid. 
Click on Reset All button.  Click on Reset All button. 
Uncheck the Dots checkbox.
Click the Red colour button. 
Let us uncheck the Dots checkbox and click the Red button. 
Drag and place Speed meter and Pressure gauge in water pipe.  Drag and place Speed meter in the water pipe.
Similarly drag the Pressure gauge and place inside the water pipe. 
Drag the Pressure gauge and Speed meter in the water pipe from left to right.  Drag the Pressure gauge and Speed meter all along the water pipe.
Observe that values of speed and pressure remain uniform. This is because the flow of water is Streamlined. 
Click and drag the handles of water pipe on both sides.
Point speed meter and pressure gauge. Click and drag the 3^{rd} and 5^{th} handle of the water pipe from both the sides. 
Click and drag the handles on both the sides of the water pipe to change its shape.
Observe the change in the speed and pressure in the turbulent flow. 
Click and drag the Flow Rate to right completely.  Let us increase the Flow Rate to maximum. 
Click and drag the Speed meter to the extreme left of the water pipe.  Drag the Speed meter towards extreme left.
And observe the speed to be 3.5 meter per second. 
Move the cursor on the blue colour vector.  Recall that speed is a scalar quantity.
Blue vector represents direction of velocity. 
Click and drag the pressure gauge to the same place.  Drag the pressure gauge and place it on the speed meter.
Observe that the pressure is 115.896 kiloPascal. 
Drag speed meter >> keep it in 1^{st} wide region.  Drag another Speed meter from the tools and keep it in first wider region. 
Move the cursor on the Speed meter.  Notice the change in speed and velocity in the wider region.
The speed has decreased to 1.4 meter per second and the velocity vector has also decreased. 
Drag and place Pressure gauge from the tool box in the first wider region.
Point to the pressure value. 
Drag and place Pressure gauge from the tool box in the first wider region.

Cursor on the Flow screen  Here we can say that as pressure increases, speed decreases. 
Slide Number 11
Assignment 
As an assignment,
Observe the change in speed and pressure when, fluid density is changed to gasoline and honey. 
Click on the Water Tower tab.  Click on Water Tower tab to open it. 
Cursor on the Water Tower screen.  In this screen we will calculate pressure at the bottom of the tank. 
Point to the faucet and the water tower.  In this screen we can see a faucet and a water tower. 
Point to Manual and Match Leakage.  On the faucet there are two radio buttons.
Manual to start the flow of water and Match Leakage to stop the flow. 
Point to the check boxes at the right side of the screen.
Click on the check box of Measuring tape. 
On the right side of the screen select the Measuring Tape checkbox. 
Adjust the tape using mouse.  Adjust the measuring tape to measure the height of the Tank.
Note the value of the height. 
Click on the Fill button.  Click on the Fill button to fill the tank completely. 
Click and drag the pressure gauge above the tank.  Place the Pressure gauge on the inlet of the tank to measure the pressure.
Note the value of pressure at the surface. 
Slide Number 12
Numerical A tank of cubical shape is filled with water to a height of 10.42 m. Find the pressure exerted by water at the bottom of the tank. The atmospheric pressure is 102.3 kPa. Density of water is 1000 kg/m^3. Take g=9.81m/sec^2. 
Let us solve the given numerical.
A tank of cubical shape is filled with water to a height of 10.42 m. Find the pressure exerted at the bottom of the tank. The atmospheric pressure is 102.3 kPa. Density of water is 1000 kg/m^{3}. Take g= 9.81 m/sec^{2}. 
Click and drag the pressure gauge to the bottom of the tank.  Click and drag the Pressure gauge to the bottom of the tank. 
Point to the pressure gauge  Observe that the pressure at the bottom of the tank is 198.1 kiloPascal. 
Slide Number 13
Calculation of Pressure Exerted P=P_{0}+hρg P_{0} is pressure at the surface. 'h' is the height of the tank 'ρ' is the density of the liquid P=102300+1000*10.42*9.81 =204520 Pascal/1000 =204.5 kPa 
Calculate pressure at the bottom of the tank using the formula.
P=P_{0}+hρg Substitute the values from the numerical into the formula. Notice that the value of pressure is converted to newton. The required pressure at the bottom of the tank is 204.5 kPa. 
Now we will compare the calculated value with the observed pressure.  
Point to the Pressure gauge.  Notice that pressure in the simulation is comparable to the calculated value. 
Slide Number 14
Assignment A Tank of cubical shape is filled with honey to a height of 10.42 m. Find the pressure exerted by the honey at the bottom of the tank. The atmospheric pressure is 102.3 kPa. Density of honey is 1420 kg/m^3. Take g=9.81m/sec^2. 
Solve the given numericals. 
Slide Number 15
Assignment A Tank of cubical shape is filled with gasoline to a height of 10.42 m. Find the pressure exerted by the gasoline at the bottom of the tank. The atmospheric pressure is 102.3 kPa. Density of gasoline is 700 kg/m^3. Take g=9.81m/sec^2. 

Click on Reset All button.  Click on Reset All button. 
Click on the Hose check box.  Now we will see the flow of water by changing the position of the Hose. 
Click on the Fill button.  Click on Fill button to fill the tank. 
Click and drag the Hose and align it with the orange slider.  First Align the Hose with the orange slider. 
Click and drag the orange slider.  Open the orange slider. 
Drag the Hose Up and then down.
Point to the trajectory. 
Drag the Hose up and then down.
Observe the trajectory of flow of the fluid. Here as the depth decreases trajectory of the fluid changes. 
Let us summarize  
Slide Number 16
Summary 
In this tutorial, we have demonstrated,
Fluid Pressure and Flow PhET simulation. 
Slide Number 17
Summary 
Using this simulation we have Demonstrated,
How pressure changes in presence and absence of atmosphere. Pressure in different fluid densities. Bernoulli’s Principle. 
Slide Number 18
Summary 
Calculated the pressure at the bottom of the tank.
Observed the trajectory of the fluid. 
Slide Number 19
About Spoken Tutorial project. 
The video at the following link summarizes the Spoken Tutorial project.
Please download and watch it. 
Slide Number 20
Spoken Tutorial workshops. 
The Spoken Tutorial Project team,
conducts workshops using spoken tutorials and gives certificates on passing online tests. For more details, please write to us. 
Slide Number 21
Forum for specific questions: Do you have questions in THIS Spoken Tutorial? Please visit this site Choose the minute and second where you have the question. Explain your question briefly. Someone from our team will answer them. 
Please post your timed queries on this forum. 
Slide Number 22
Acknowledgements. 
This project is partially funded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching. 
Slide Number 23
Acknowledgement 
Spoken Tutorial Project is funded by NMEICT, MHRD, Government of India.
More information on this mission is available at this link. 
This is Himanshi Karwanje from IIT Bombay
Thank you for joining. 