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Time Narration
00:01 Welcome to this tutorial on Build an Atom simulation.
00:06 In this tutorial, we will

demonstrate Build an Atom, Interactive PhET simulation.

00:14 To follow this tutorial, learners should be familiar with topics in high school science.
00:21 Here I am using-

Ubuntu Linux OS version 14.04

00:28 Java version 1.7.0
00:33 Firefox Web Browser Version 53.02.2
00:39 Using this simulation, students will be able to: Build an atom using protons, neutrons and electrons.
00:49 Identify an element and its position on the periodic table.
00:55 Determine whether an atom is neutral or an ion.

Predict the charge.

01:03 Determine the mass of an atom or ion.
01:07 Determine the stability of atom or ion created.
01:12 Represent the atomic symbols.
01:15 Create isotopes of an element.
01:19 Atoms are fundamental building blocks of matter.
01:23 Each atom consists of a small, dense, positively-charged nucleus.
01:30 Nucleus is surrounded by much lighter, negatively-charged electrons.
01:37 Nucleus may also contain neutrons.
01:41 Neutron has same mass as proton but it has no charge.
01:47 Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom defines the chemical element.
01:53 Chemical properties of an element arise due to number & arrangement of electrons.
02:00 Let us get started.
02:03 Use the given link to download the simulation.

02:07 I have already downloaded Build an Atom simulation to my Downloads folder.
02:15 To open the simulation, right click on build-an-atom html file.
02:21 Select Open With Firefox Web Browser option. File opens in the browser.
02:29 This is the interface of Build-an-Atom simulation.
02:34 The interface has 3 screens-

Atom, Symbol and Game.

02:42 Let us begin our simulation with Atom screen.
02:46 Click on Atom screen.
02:49 Using this screen, students can- build atoms, determine the identity, net-charge and mass of an atom.
03:00 Atom screen shows a Bohr's model of an atom.
03:05 It shows position of nucleus and 2 orbits.
03:10 At the bottom of the screen, there are 3 containers with Protons, Neutrons and Electrons.
03:18 On the right-side, there are 3 panels- Element, Net charge and Mass Number.
03:27 To open the panel, click on the green plus sign located on top-right corner on each panel.
03:35 This allows you to view the changes as you change the number of particles.
03:41 At the bottom of the screen, you will see Show box.

In the box, click on Stable/Unstable check box.

03:52 The top left corner of the screen shows a box.
03:56 It shows the number of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons, we have used to create the atom.
04:05 Let us start by building Hydrogen atom.
04:09 From the Proton container, click on the Proton.
04:14 Drag and drop on the X mark, which represents the nucleus of an atom.
04:20 Simultaneously observe the changes in each of the panels.
04:27 Hydrogen atom is the simplest of all elements.
04:32 It has one electron in the first orbit and one proton in the nucleus.
04:39 Drag an Electron and place in the first orbit.
04:44 By default, the orbits are shown as circular dashed lines.
04:50 Under Model heading, click on Cloud radio button.
04:55 This will show the orbit as electron cloud.
04:59 Click on Orbits radio button to show the default orbits.
05:05 Observe all the panels on the screen.
05:09 Element box shows Hydrogen as Element.
05:13 Net charge is zero and is labeled as neutral atom.

Mass number is one.

05:22 It also shows that the atom is Stable.
05:26 Now add one more Proton to the nucleus. The atom is shown as Unstable Helium Ion.
05:35 Add one more Electron in the 1st orbit.
05:40 Now it is a Neutral atom but the atom is still labelled as Unstable.
05:47 Add a Neutron to the nucleus. The atom is now Stable.
05:53 The Mass Number shows 3, but we know that atomic mass of helium is 4. So, add another Neutron to the nucleus.
06:04 This completes the atomic structure of Helium atom.
06:09 Helium atom has 2 Protons, 2 Neutrons and 2 Electrons.
06:16 We can add Neutrons to the nucleus, to create isotopes of the same element.
06:23 Atoms of the same element that differ in neutrons are called isotopes.
06:29 Isotopes of same element have same chemical properties.
06:35 Remove one Proton, one Electron and 2 Neutrons from the Helium atom.
06:43 Now we have hydrogen atom, also called Protium.
06:49 Let us create isotopes of Hydrogen.
06:53 Hydrogen has three isotopes. Protium, Deuterium and Tritium.
07:00 Nucleus of Protium contains only one Proton.
07:04 Deuterium has one Proton and one Neutron.
07:09 Tritium has one Proton and 2 Neutrons.
07:15 Add one Neutron to the nucleus. Deuterium atom is created.
07:22 It is Stable. Add another Neutron to the nucleus to create tritium.
07:29 Tritium is unstable, as shown here.
07:34 As an assignment: Create a neutral carbon atom. Show isotopes of carbon.
07:43 Click on reset button at the bottom-right corner.
07:48 This will reset the screen to default settings.
07:53 Next, click on Symbol screen at the bottom of the interface.
07:59 Using this screen, students can interpret atomic symbols.
08:05 Notice that a Symbol panel is added on the screen.
08:10 Atom of every element is represented by a symbol.
08:15 It gives information about atomic number, mass number and charge.
08:23 The subscript number is called the atomic number.
08:27 The superscript number is called the mass number.
08:32 Charge on the atom is shown on the top-right corner.
08:37 The number of protons in an atom is its atomic number.
08:42 The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is its mass number.
08:49 Add Protons, Neutrons and Electrons to the atom.
08:55 Observe the Symbol panel.
08:58 Note the change in name of Element, atomic number, Mass Number and charge.
09:06 Now we will move on to the Game screen.
09:10 Click on Game screen at the bottom of the interface.
09:15 Four different games are available.
09:18 These games will test the knowledge gained using this simulation.
09:24 A timer and a sound button are provided at the bottom-left corner of the screen.
09:31 Click on the timer button to enable the timer before the game starts.
09:37 We can also control the sound by clicking on the sound symbol.
09:42 Click on each game screen and explore.
09:50 In this tutorial, we have learnt: how to use Build an Atom, interactive PhET simulation.
09:59 Using this simulation, we have learnt to - Build models of Hydrogen and Helium atoms.
10:07 Add or remove electrons to create ions.
10:11 Add or remove neutrons to create isotopes.
10:16 As an assignment: create a neutral oxygen atom.
10:21 Add two electrons to the neutral atom.
10:25 Observe the change in parameters on various panels.
10:30 Try to remove electrons from the inner shells, observe the results.
10:37 The video at the following link summarizes the Spoken Tutorial project. Please download and watch it.
10:46 The Spoken Tutorial Project team: conducts workshops using spoken tutorials and gives certificates on passing online tests.

For more details, please write to us.

11:00 Please post your timed queries on this forum.
11:04 This project is partially funded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching.
11:12 Spoken Tutorial Project is funded by NMEICT, MHRD, Government of India. More information on this mission is available at this link.
11:24 This tutorial is contributed by Snehalatha kaliappan and Meenal Ghoderao, from IIT Bombay. Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Madhurig, PoojaMoolya, Pratik kamble, Sandhya.np14, Snehalathak