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00:00 Welcome to the spoken tutorial on type 1 and type 2 nutrients.
00:06 This tutorial is about the difference between type 1 and type 2 nutrients.
00:12 Let us begin.
00:14 Food gives us energy and nutrients.
00:17 Nutrients are necessary for the growth and maintenance of our body.
00:22 Some of these nutrients cannot be produced by our body.
00:27 Such nutrients are called essential nutrients.
00:31 There are 40 essential nutrients that we must obtain from food.
00:36 We cannot get adequate amounts of these nutrients from nutrient-poor foods.
00:42 Such foods, even in large amounts, can satisfy only the feeling of hunger.
00:48 However, we can be deficient in one or more of the essential nutrients.
00:54 This is known as hidden hunger.
00:58 Essential nutrients are divided into 2 types:
01:02 Type 1 nutrients or functional nutrients
01:05 and Type 2 nutrients or growth nutrients.
01:09 Iron,


01:11 iodine

and copper are type 1 nutrients.

01:15 Manganese,
01:17 fluorine

and selenium also belong to the same group.

01:21 Vitamin B,


01:23 A,


01:25 E

and K are type 1 nutrients as well.

01:29 Sulphur,

chlorine and

01:32 protein or essential amino acids are type 2 nutrients.
01:37 Sodium,


01:39 magnesium,


01:41 and zinc also belong to the same group.
01:45 Essential fatty acids like omega 3 are type 2 nutrients as well.
01:51 Let’s understand the difference between type 1 and type 2 nutrients.
01:56 Type 1 nutrients are required for specific functions in the tissues.
02:02 Therefore, they are concentrated in a particular tissue or group of tissues.
02:08 Let’s take calcium and vitamin A as examples.
02:13 Calcium is required for strong bones.
02:17 Vitamin A is required for healthy eyes.
02:21 By contrast, type 2 nutrients are required for the overall growth of the body.
02:28 They form part of the structure and function of each and every cell in the body.
02:34 Therefore, they are present in all body tissues
02:38 Let’s discuss the response of our body to type 1 and 2 nutrient deficiencies.
02:45 During a type 1 nutrient deficiency, the body continues to grow normally.
02:50 Body takes this nutrient from the specific tissues in which it is stored.
02:57 Let’s take calcium as an example.
03:00 In calcium deficiency, the body uses the calcium stored in the bones.
03:07 As a result, the concentration of that nutrient in the tissues decreases.
03:13 Then, the organs dependant on that nutrient are affected.
03:18 Therefore, the person becomes ill.
03:21 The sick person then shows a specific sign of deficiency.
03:26 Let’s understand this with the help of 4 examples:
03:31 1. Bone-thinning and increased risk of fractures are signs of calcium deficiency.
03:37 2. Anaemia is a sign of iron deficiency.
03:41 3. Night blindness is a sign of vitamin A deficiency.
03:45 4. And Hypothyroidism is a sign of iodine deficiency.
03:50 On the other hand, there is only 1 sign of type 2 nutrient deficiencies.
03:57 That sign is called growth failure.
04:00 Growth failure means the body reduces the rate of 2 major processes:
04:06 1. Formation of new cells and
04:08 2. Replacement of old cells.
04:11 The body stops growing and making new tissues.
04:16 This leads to low body weight,
04:18 short height

and decreased muscle mass.

04:23 All the cells of the body, including the immune system, are affected.
04:29 This increases the risk of infections.
04:32 Eventually, it can cause death.
04:35 Type 2 nutrients are not stored in the body.
04:39 In a deficiency, the body may start to break down its tissues or muscles.
04:45 This releases the type 2 nutrient in which the body is deficient.
04:50 This nutrient will then be used for other tissues of the body.
04:55 When tissue breakdown becomes severe, the functions of the cells are affected.
05:02 Also, there is a reduction in the appetite.
05:05 The tissue breakdown provides the nutrient in which the body is deficient.
05:11 However, it also releases all the other type 2 nutrients from the tissues.
05:17 These nutrients are then excreted from the body.
05:21 So, all type 2 nutrients must be provided in a type 2 nutrient deficiency.
05:28 Correcting a type 1 nutrient deficiency does not require all type 1 nutrients.
05:34 It can be treated by giving only the nutrient in which the body is deficient.
05:40 Next, let’s discuss the availability of type 1 and 2 nutrients from breastmilk.
05:47 Breastmilk contains stable stores of type 2 nutrients.
05:52 They do not change even if the mother is undernourished.
05:57 The baby of an undernourished mother can grow well with adequate breastfeeding.
06:03 By contrast, the quantity of type 1 nutrients in breastmilk is not stable.
06:09 It varies as per mother’s self-nourishment.
06:13 Let’s take vitamin D as an example.
06:17 Breastmilk of a mother deficient in vitamin D has less amount of vitamin D.
06:23 Next, let’s discuss the diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 nutrient deficiencies.
06:30 A type 1 nutrient deficiency is commonly diagnosed in 2 ways.
06:36 First, the unique symptoms of the deficiency are recognised.
06:41 Then, the level of the nutrient in the body is measured by a blood test.
06:46 Let’s take iron and iodine as examples.
06:50 In iron deficiency, symptoms such as pale skin and fatigue are recognised.
06:56 The level of haemoglobin in the body is measured by a blood test.
07:01 Iodine deficiency is also diagnosed by its unique symptoms and tests.
07:07 Symptoms such as swelling of the neck,
07:10 weight gain and
07:12 hair loss are recognised.
07:14 The level of iodine and thyroid hormones in the body is measured by blood tests.
07:21 Type 1 nutrient deficiencies are well recognised and treated.
07:26 There are various ways to correct a type 1 nutrient deficiency.
07:31 One can take the recommended amount of these nutrients in the diet.
07:36 Supplements are also recommended for these nutrients.
07:41 Iron,

vitamin C and

07:43 folic acid supplements are commonly prescribed.
07:47 Food is fortified with type 1 nutrients in areas where deficiency is common.
07:53 A well-known example is salt that is fortified with iodine.
07:59 A qualified nutrition expert can provide guidance on these methods.
08:04 Diagnosis and treatment of a type 2 nutrient deficiency is difficult.
08:10 There is only 1 way to diagnose any type 2 nutrient deficiency.
08:15 It is to measure and track
08:17 the weight,


08:19 and mid upper arm circumference.
08:22 However, this will only help in detecting growth failure.
08:27 Growth failure is caused by every type 2 nutrient deficiency.
08:33 It is difficult to determine which specific nutrient the body is deficient in.
08:40 So, correcting a type 2 nutrient deficiency requires all type 2 nutrients.
08:47 Food rich in all type 2 nutrients must be given in such a deficiency.
08:53 Increasing only the quantity of previously given food will not work.
08:59 Previously given food failed to provide type 2 nutrients to the body.
09:04 The quality of food must be changed for normal growth of the body.
09:10 Please consult a qualified nutrition expert for further guidance.
09:15 Food sources of type 1 and type 2 nutrients are discussed in other tutorials.
09:22 Please visit our website for more details.
09:26 This brings us to the end of this tutorial.

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