Health-and-Nutrition/C2/Pre-pregnancy-Nutrition/English-timed

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Time
Narration
00:01 Welcome to the Spoken Tutorial on pre-pregnancy nutrition.
00:05 In this tutorial, we will learn about nutritional requirements during reproductive age and pre-pregnancy period.
00:14 Let us first begin with Protein.
00:17 Protein is required for growth and maintenance of muscle tissue.
00:22 It aids in cell repair and bone development as well as for joints.
00:27 It helps in improving immunity and maintaining a healthy liver and also provides energy.
00:34 Protein forms chemicals which help in-

digestion, break down of toxins in the body,

00:41 maintaining blood sugar and carrying signal to and from the brain.
00:47 Deficiency of Protein leads to - diminished growth of fetus for its age,
00:52 poor height, memory and motor skills in the baby, along with high risk of infection.
01:00 In adults, it leads to - wrinkling of skin,

hair fall,

01:05 tiredness and weakness,
01:08 frequent infections and muscle loss.
01:11 Another protein called Keratin is an important part of hair, nails and skin.
01:18 Interestingly, the protein is made up of different substances called Amino acids.
01:24 There are in total 22 Amino acids out of which 9 Amino acids have to be taken from the diet.
01:33 Let us now look at the two types of Protein which are - the Complete Protein and

the Incomplete Protein.

01:41 All 9 Amino acids mentioned earlier are present in animal proteins.
01:46 That is why animal proteins are called complete proteins.
01:51 On the other hand, in plant based proteins, some of these 9 necessary Amino acids are in lesser amounts.
02:00 For example, cereals are low in Lysine while pulses are low in Methionine.
02:07 It is therefore important to consume different plant proteins together in combinations.
02:13 For example, grains and pulses should be consumed in a combination as they both will provide enough quantities of necessary Amino acids.
02:23 Now we will learn about another important nutrient i.e. Fat.
02:28 Good fats from foods are important for good health.
02:32 There are some fats that cannot be produced by the body, like Omega-3 fatty acids.

Hence they should be taken from the diet.

02:40 These fats maintain heart health,
02:42 reduce inflammation in the body

and can help to improve the chances of getting pregnant.

02:48

They also reduce the risk of premature birth of the baby

and increase intelligence in the baby.

02:56 After learning about protein and fat, we will now learn about vitamin-A.
03:01 Vitamin-A helps to maintain healthy eyes.

It regulates cell growth,

03:07 increases the chances of pregnancy and

improves immunity during pre-pregnancy period.

03:14 Like Vitamin A, the entire Vitamin B-complex plays a crucial role in strength and health of women in all stages of life.
03:24 Among all the B-Vitamins, we will first look at Vitamin B-6 i.e. pyridoxine.
03:31 Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine is required for functioning of the nervous system thereby improving the brain development.
03:39 Also, it may provide relief from pregnancy related nausea.
03:44 Yet another nutrient is, Vitamin B12 which along with folate & choline helps to prevent Anemia and Neural tube defects.
03:54 Neural tube defects are birth defects that affect the spine and central nervous system of the baby which are formed during the first month of pregnancy.
04:04 Note that a neural tube is a part of the foetus that develops into the brain and spinal cord.
04:11 Hence, it is important to have enough Folate, Vitamin-B12 and Choline in the body before getting pregnant.
04:20 Deficiency of vitamin B-12 also leads to Anemia, infertility and miscarriage.
04:27 Now, we will learn about another important nutrient i.e. Folate.
04:31 Folate which is also known as Vitamin-B9, helps the body to make healthy new cells.
04:38 These cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.
04:43 Deficiency of folate in pregnant mothers leads to Anemia and defects of the brain and spine called Neural Tube Defects.
04:52 Note that Neural Tube Defects has been explained earlier in the same tutorial.
04:58 We will now learn about the role of Iron.

Iron is required for formation of Hemoglobin in the blood and for fetal growth.

05:07 Low levels of hemoglobin in pregnancy can lead to - high blood pressure during pregnancy,
05:13 preterm delivery,
05:15 low birth weight baby and miscarriages.
05:18 Apart from this, Hemoglobin helps to transport oxygen to other tissues and cells.
05:25 Low levels of Hemoglobin or iron leads to Anemia.
05:30 Moreover, Iron may be low in women due to - monthly menstruation,
05:36 worm infestation,
05:38 diet low in Iron and poor absorption due to Phytic acid and Oxalates in the food.
05:45 In order to decrease Phytic acid and Oxalates and to increase absorption of nutrients -
05:52 use pre-cooking methods like - soaking, sprouting, roasting and fermentation.
06:00 Signs of Iron deficiency Anemia are -

tiredness and lack of energy,

06:06 breathlessness,

increase in heart rate

06:10 and pale skin.
06:11 Remember, with Iron always consume Vitamin-C rich foods as it will help in iron absorption.
06:19 Vitamin-C also enhances immunity and thus reduces infections.
06:25 Next, we will learn the importance of Calcium & Vitamin D.
06:30 It is suggested to consume Calcium as it helps in development of bones.
06:35 The fetus requires Calcium for bone and teeth development.
06:39 Low levels of Calcium can cause weak bones.
06:43 However, remember that- Vitamin-D is required to absorb calcium in the body.
06:50 The best way to obtain Vitamin-D is exposure to sunlight between 11.00 am to 3.00 pm for 15 to 20 mins.
06:59 Next, we will learn about Choline.
07:02 Choline is important for brain development of the baby as it enhances memory and attention span.
07:09 Deficiency of Choline leads to- fatty liver in adults,
07:13 miscarriages and Neural tube defects in fetus which is mentioned earlier in this tutorial.
07:20 Let’s move ahead and learn the importance of Zinc.
07:24 Zinc is important for immunity and cell growth. It helps in making genetic material and protein in the body.
07:31 It helps in healing of wounds. Also, it contributes to ovulation and fertility in women.
07:37 And it is important for growth of the fetus.
07:40 Note that lack of dietary Zinc - can affect the sense of taste and smell,
07:46 delay the growth of placenta which is the cord that transports nutrients from mother to the fetus.
07:53 Lack of Zinc also affects the growth of embryo and results in low birth weight baby.
08:00 Another significant nutrient that we will look at is Iodine.
08:05 Iodine is required by the body to maintain normal levels of thyroid hormone which are produced by the Thyroid gland.
08:13 Deficiency of Iodine in mother leads to increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth of the baby.
08:21 It can also lead to - birth deformities,

low birth weight, stunted growth and mental retardation in the baby.

08:30 Magnesium is another nutrient which helps to calm the nervous system.
08:35 It prevents cramps and migraine headaches by relaxing the blood vessels in the brain.
08:41 It also maintains healthy blood pressure and rhythm of the heart.
08:45 It helps in production of genetic material and enhances bone development.
08:51 Apart from a healthy nutrition for a healthy pregnancy, it is important to avoid alcohol as it can lead to miscarriage or weak embryo.
09:00 Other things to be avoided are - Tobacco,
09:03 Cigarettes,

Drugs,

09:06 self medication,

excessive use of sugar, Tea and coffee, Junk food and sweetened beverages

09:15 as these substances can affect reproductive health and have adverse effects on pregnancy.
09:20 Note that it is also important to manage weight before becoming pregnant.
09:25 Underweight women give birth to small babies or preterm babies which are born during 7 to 8 months of pregnancy.
09:34 Such babies are at highest risk of premature deaths.
09:38 However, on the other hand, women with increased weight have high risk of gestational diabetes and blood pressure.
09:45 Also, it can lead to neonatal complications.
09:49 Therefore women should consult a healthcare provider to maintain a healthy weight before getting pregnant.
09:55 Along with this, it is very important to consume a healthy, well-balanced diet containing vegetarian and/or non-vegetarian foods.
10:05 Remember that all non-veg foods are rich in - protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-9, zinc, iron , calcium, choline and Vitamin-D.
10:18 Along with animal derived food, plant derived foods, Pulses, millet, cereals, nuts and seeds will help in formation of -
10:30 immune system, muscles, bones,
10:33 liver, hair, skin , eyes and brain.
10:36 Apart from these, dairy products will also aid in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby.
10:43 Alternately, leafy vegetables and seeds are also rich in Calcium and help in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby.
10:52 Like leafy vegetables, Fruits are also rich in Vitamin-C and they help in -

improving immunity, absorption of Iron and prevent infections.

11:04 For fertility of the woman and growth of the baby, beans, nuts and seeds should be consumed along with other non-veg food.
11:14 Various non-veg foods like Fish, eggs and dairy products help to maintain normal thyroid hormone,

improve growth and prevent physical defects.

11:27 Nuts and seeds are rich in magnesium and are essential for functioning of nervous system and prevention of leg cramps.
11:35 This brings us to the end of this tutorial on - Pre-pregnancy Nutrition.

Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Gmungrey, PoojaMoolya, Sandhya.np14