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00:01 Welcome to the Spoken Tutorial on pre-pregnancy nutrition.
00:05 In this tutorial, we will learn about nutritional requirements during reproductive age and pre-pregnancy period.
00:14 Let us first begin with Protein.
00:17 Protein is required for growth and maintenance of muscle tissue.
00:22 It aids in cell repair and bone development as well as for joints.
00:27 It helps in improving immunity and maintaining a healthy liver and also provides energy.
00:34 Protein forms chemicals which help in-

digestion, break down of toxins in the body,

00:41 maintaining blood sugar and carrying signal to and from the brain.
00:47 Deficiency of Protein leads to - diminished growth of fetus for its age,
00:52 poor height, memory and motor skills in the baby, along with high risk of infection.
01:00 In adults, it leads to - wrinkling of skin,

hair fall,

01:05 tiredness and weakness,
01:08 frequent infections and muscle loss.
01:11 Another protein called Keratin is an important part of hair, nails and skin.
01:18 Interestingly, the protein is made up of different substances called Amino acids.
01:24 There are in total 22 Amino acids out of which 9 Amino acids have to be taken from the diet.
01:33 Let us now look at the two types of Protein which are - the Complete Protein and

the Incomplete Protein.

01:41 All 9 Amino acids mentioned earlier are present in animal proteins.
01:46 That is why animal proteins are called complete proteins.
01:51 On the other hand, in plant based proteins, some of these 9 necessary Amino acids are in lesser amounts.
02:00 For example, cereals are low in Lysine while pulses are low in Methionine.
02:07 It is therefore important to consume different plant proteins together in combinations.
02:13 For example, grains and pulses should be consumed in a combination as they both will provide enough quantities of necessary Amino acids.
02:23 Now we will learn about another important nutrient i.e. Fat.
02:28 Good fats from foods are important for good health.
02:32 There are some fats that cannot be produced by the body, like Omega-3 fatty acids.

Hence they should be taken from the diet.

02:40 These fats maintain heart health,
02:42 reduce inflammation in the body

and can help to improve the chances of getting pregnant.


They also reduce the risk of premature birth of the baby

and increase intelligence in the baby.

02:56 After learning about protein and fat, we will now learn about vitamin-A.
03:01 Vitamin-A helps to maintain healthy eyes.

It regulates cell growth,

03:07 increases the chances of pregnancy and

improves immunity during pre-pregnancy period.

03:14 Like Vitamin A, the entire Vitamin B-complex plays a crucial role in strength and health of women in all stages of life.
03:24 Among all the B-Vitamins, we will first look at Vitamin B-6 i.e. pyridoxine.
03:31 Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine is required for functioning of the nervous system thereby improving the brain development.
03:39 Also, it may provide relief from pregnancy related nausea.
03:44 Yet another nutrient is, Vitamin B12 which along with folate & choline helps to prevent Anemia and Neural tube defects.
03:54 Neural tube defects are birth defects that affect the spine and central nervous system of the baby which are formed during the first month of pregnancy.
04:04 Note that a neural tube is a part of the foetus that develops into the brain and spinal cord.
04:11 Hence, it is important to have enough Folate, Vitamin-B12 and Choline in the body before getting pregnant.
04:20 Deficiency of vitamin B-12 also leads to Anemia, infertility and miscarriage.
04:27 Now, we will learn about another important nutrient i.e. Folate.
04:31 Folate which is also known as Vitamin-B9, helps the body to make healthy new cells.
04:38 These cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.
04:43 Deficiency of folate in pregnant mothers leads to Anemia and defects of the brain and spine called Neural Tube Defects.
04:52 Note that Neural Tube Defects has been explained earlier in the same tutorial.
04:58 We will now learn about the role of Iron.

Iron is required for formation of Hemoglobin in the blood and for fetal growth.

05:07 Low levels of hemoglobin in pregnancy can lead to - high blood pressure during pregnancy,
05:13 preterm delivery,
05:15 low birth weight baby and miscarriages.
05:18 Apart from this, Hemoglobin helps to transport oxygen to other tissues and cells.
05:25 Low levels of Hemoglobin or iron leads to Anemia.
05:30 Moreover, Iron may be low in women due to - monthly menstruation,
05:36 worm infestation,
05:38 diet low in Iron and poor absorption due to Phytic acid and Oxalates in the food.
05:45 In order to decrease Phytic acid and Oxalates and to increase absorption of nutrients -
05:52 use pre-cooking methods like - soaking, sprouting, roasting and fermentation.
06:00 Signs of Iron deficiency Anemia are -

tiredness and lack of energy,

06:06 breathlessness,

increase in heart rate

06:10 and pale skin.
06:11 Remember, with Iron always consume Vitamin-C rich foods as it will help in iron absorption.
06:19 Vitamin-C also enhances immunity and thus reduces infections.
06:25 Next, we will learn the importance of Calcium & Vitamin D.
06:30 It is suggested to consume Calcium as it helps in development of bones.
06:35 The fetus requires Calcium for bone and teeth development.
06:39 Low levels of Calcium can cause weak bones.
06:43 However, remember that- Vitamin-D is required to absorb calcium in the body.
06:50 The best way to obtain Vitamin-D is exposure to sunlight between 11.00 am to 3.00 pm for 15 to 20 mins.
06:59 Next, we will learn about Choline.
07:02 Choline is important for brain development of the baby as it enhances memory and attention span.
07:09 Deficiency of Choline leads to- fatty liver in adults,
07:13 miscarriages and Neural tube defects in fetus which is mentioned earlier in this tutorial.
07:20 Let’s move ahead and learn the importance of Zinc.
07:24 Zinc is important for immunity and cell growth. It helps in making genetic material and protein in the body.
07:31 It helps in healing of wounds. Also, it contributes to ovulation and fertility in women.
07:37 And it is important for growth of the fetus.
07:40 Note that lack of dietary Zinc - can affect the sense of taste and smell,
07:46 delay the growth of placenta which is the cord that transports nutrients from mother to the fetus.
07:53 Lack of Zinc also affects the growth of embryo and results in low birth weight baby.
08:00 Another significant nutrient that we will look at is Iodine.
08:05 Iodine is required by the body to maintain normal levels of thyroid hormone which are produced by the Thyroid gland.
08:13 Deficiency of Iodine in mother leads to increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth of the baby.
08:21 It can also lead to - birth deformities,

low birth weight, stunted growth and mental retardation in the baby.

08:30 Magnesium is another nutrient which helps to calm the nervous system.
08:35 It prevents cramps and migraine headaches by relaxing the blood vessels in the brain.
08:41 It also maintains healthy blood pressure and rhythm of the heart.
08:45 It helps in production of genetic material and enhances bone development.
08:51 Apart from a healthy nutrition for a healthy pregnancy, it is important to avoid alcohol as it can lead to miscarriage or weak embryo.
09:00 Other things to be avoided are - Tobacco,
09:03 Cigarettes,


09:06 self medication,

excessive use of sugar, Tea and coffee, Junk food and sweetened beverages

09:15 as these substances can affect reproductive health and have adverse effects on pregnancy.
09:20 Note that it is also important to manage weight before becoming pregnant.
09:25 Underweight women give birth to small babies or preterm babies which are born during 7 to 8 months of pregnancy.
09:34 Such babies are at highest risk of premature deaths.
09:38 However, on the other hand, women with increased weight have high risk of gestational diabetes and blood pressure.
09:45 Also, it can lead to neonatal complications.
09:49 Therefore women should consult a healthcare provider to maintain a healthy weight before getting pregnant.
09:55 Along with this, it is very important to consume a healthy, well-balanced diet containing vegetarian and/or non-vegetarian foods.
10:05 Remember that all non-veg foods are rich in - protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-9, zinc, iron , calcium, choline and Vitamin-D.
10:18 Along with animal derived food, plant derived foods, Pulses, millet, cereals, nuts and seeds will help in formation of -
10:30 immune system, muscles, bones,
10:33 liver, hair, skin , eyes and brain.
10:36 Apart from these, dairy products will also aid in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby.
10:43 Alternately, leafy vegetables and seeds are also rich in Calcium and help in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby.
10:52 Like leafy vegetables, Fruits are also rich in Vitamin-C and they help in -

improving immunity, absorption of Iron and prevent infections.

11:04 For fertility of the woman and growth of the baby, beans, nuts and seeds should be consumed along with other non-veg food.
11:14 Various non-veg foods like Fish, eggs and dairy products help to maintain normal thyroid hormone,

improve growth and prevent physical defects.

11:27 Nuts and seeds are rich in magnesium and are essential for functioning of nervous system and prevention of leg cramps.
11:35 This brings us to the end of this tutorial on - Pre-pregnancy Nutrition.

Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Gmungrey, PoojaMoolya, Sandhya.np14