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00:00 Welcome to the spoken tutorial on junk food.
00:04 In this tutorial we will learn about:
00:07 Contents of junk food
00:09 and harmful effects of junk food on our body.
00:14 Any food can be considered as junk food depending upon three factors.
00:20 First two factors are ingredients
00:23 and the method of cooking.
00:26 The nutrient content of the food is the third important factor.
00:32 Junk food contains a high amount of sugar, salt, refined fat and refined flour.
00:41 Most of the junk food is usually prepared by frying or baking.
00:48 Many artificial colours, flavours and preservatives are added to these food.
00:56 This is done to enhance the taste, appearance and shelf life of the food.
01:03 Junk food are high in calories.
01:07 They have none or little amounts of protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals.
01:15 A few commonly consumed junk food are deep fried salty snacks.
01:22 Majority of the fast food are also junk food.
01:27 For example: pizza, burgers, french fries, noodles, puff pastry, samosa, etc.
01:39 Some beverages are considered as junk food.
01:43 For example: cold drinks, fruit juices and artificially flavoured drinks.
01:51 Even caffeinated drinks, soda and energy drinks are included.
01:57 Sweets, deep fried sweets, jams, jellies, sauces, ketchups are also junk food.
02:07 Biscuit, cake, chocolate, candy, ice cream are other examples.
02:14 Let us now see the effect of junk food on our body.
02:18 Junk food which is high in sugar causes immediate rise in blood sugar levels.
02:24 As a result, the pancreas releases insulin in our blood.
02:30 Insulin is a hormone which acts like a key to open the cells.
02:35 The cells absorb sugar from the blood to provide us energy.
02:42 Excess sugar gets stored as fat in the body.
02:48 Regular eating of high sugar food can cause insulin resistance.
02:54 During insulin resistance, the body is unable to respond to insulin or use it.
03:02 Therefore, sugar is not taken up by our cells from the blood.
03:07 As a result, there is a rise in insulin levels and blood sugar levels.
03:14 The high insulin levels send signals for hunger to the brain.
03:20 The body starts craving more food even if it is not hungry.
03:26 This creates a vicious cycle and causes overeating.
03:32 Let us understand this with an example.
03:35 While eating a biscuit or ladoo, we can't restrict ourselves to one piece.
03:42 We crave to eat it more and more.
03:45 We mostly finish the entire packet of biscuits or many ladoos at a time.
03:52 This is because of the hunger signals which are sent to the brain.
03:57 Sugar also has an effect on blood pressure.
04:02 On eating food high in sugar and salt, our sodium level increases.
04:08 Sugar enhances the sodium absorption in the body by the kidney.
04:14 As a result, sodium gets retained in the body.
04:18 This causes an increase in blood pressure and water retention in the body.
04:25 As a result, puffiness in hands and feet can be seen.
04:30 Let me give you an another example.
04:34 After eating chips we usually feel thirsty.
04:38 This is because sodium levels in our blood increases on eating salty food.
04:45 The brain then sends signals of thirst so that we drink more water.
04:51 Drinking water will dilute the sodium levels in the body.
04:56 But, drinking juice or cold drinks will increase the sugar levels in the body.
05:03 This will result in a rise in the blood pressure.
05:07 Apart from sugar and salt, most junk food have a lot of refined flour.
05:14 Refined wheat flour is most commonly used.
05:18 These refined flours are low in fiber and lack essential nutrients.
05:24 Fiber has a very important role in the body.
05:28 It gets digested slowly
05:31 and gives us a feeling of fullness for a long time.
05:35 Therefore, when we eat junk food low in fiber, it gets quickly digested.
05:42 Our stomach gets empty very quickly and we feel hungry again.
05:47 Another important benefit of fiber is to maintain a healthy gut.
05:53 Our gut comprises of both good and bad bacteria.
05:58 Fiber promotes the growth of good bacteria.
06:02 Thereby, helping in proper digestion and absorption of nutrients.
06:08 Other benefits are strong immunity,
06:11 healthy skin

and reduced inflammation.

06:15 Fiber is also necessary for our stools to absorb water.
06:21 This makes the stools soft and bulky.
06:25 Thus, the stools moves easily through the intestine.
06:31 Since junk food is low in fiber, eating it regularly can cause constipation.
06:38 The other disadvantage is that junk food reduces the good bacteria in the gut.
06:45 This increases inflammation
06:47 and the risk of various diseases.
06:50 Some junk food are high in refined fats like trans-fat.
06:56 Cakes, biscuits, baked products, margarines, vanaspati all have trans-fat.
07:05 Trans-fat raises the level of bad cholesterol
07:08 and lowers good cholesterol.
07:11 Cholesterol is a type of fat found in our blood.
07:16 Good cholesterol helps in proper working of the brain, skin and heart.
07:23 But, excess of bad cholesterol is not good for our health.
07:28 Mostly fried junk food is prepared using oils containing omega 6 fatty acid.
07:35 Examples are sunflower oil, safflower oil, soybean oil.
07:41 Even corn oil and cottonseed oil are included.
07:46 The omega 6 in these oils raises the level of bad cholesterol in our body.
07:52 Excess of bad cholesterol gets deposited on the walls of our blood vessels.
07:58 Excess of omega 6 fatty acid also enhances inflammation in the body.
08:06 This results in the development of insulin resistance and heart diseases.
08:12 Excessive consumption of junk food has many harmful effects.
08:17 Obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes are the most common.
08:23 They can also cause a risk of increased bad cholesterol and heart diseases.
08:30 Sleep disturbances

or development of cysts in the ovaries can also happen.

08:37 Eating too much junk food can upset the stomach.
08:42 You may experience nausea, vomiting and reduced appetite.
08:48 Other effects of junk food are dental caries, allergies and cancer.
08:54 Junk food lacks the necessary nutrients to keep our body healthy.
08:59 Therefore, eating too much junk food can weaken our immune system.
09:05 Due to which we may often feel tired and weak.
09:09 Usually, we are not aware about the ill effects of junk food on our health.
09:14 Without giving a thought we eat them regularly in large amounts.
09:20 Therefore, we should be careful about choosing our food so that we stay healthy.
09:27 This brings us to the end of the tutorial.

Thank you for joining.

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