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Title Slide

Welcome to the spoken tutorial on junk food.
Image: Collage of content of junk food

Image: Collage of ill effects of junk food

In this tutorial, we will learn about:

1. Contents of junk food and

2. Harmful effects of junk food on our body

Image: Collage of ingredients

Image: Collage of method of frying and baking

Image: Nutrients

Any food can be considered as junk food depending upon three factors.

First two factors are ingredients and the method of cooking.

The nutrient content of the food is the third important factor.

Image: Collage of sugar, salt, oil, refined flour Junk food contains a high amount of sugar, salt, refined fat and refined flour.
Image: Collage of colored junk food Most of the junk food is usually prepared by frying or baking.

Many artificial colors, flavors and preservatives are added to these food.

This is done to enhance the taste, appearance and shelf life of the food.

Image: High calories in junk food

Image: Lack of nutrients

Junk food are high in calories.

They have none or little amounts of protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals.

Image: Collage of deep fried junk food

Image: Collage of fast food

A few commonly consumed junk food are deep fried salty snacks.

Majority of the fast food are also junk food.

For example: pizza, burgers, french fries, noodles, puff pastry, samosa, etc.

Image: Collage of beverages Some beverages are considered as junk food.

For example: cold drinks, fruit juices and artificially flavored drinks.

Even caffeinated drinks, soda and energy drinks are included.

Image: Collage of sweets, jams, jellies and sauces

Image: Collage of biscuits, cake, chocolate, ice cream, candy

Sweets, deep fried sweets, jams, jellies, sauces, ketchups are also junk food.

Biscuit, cake, chocolate, candy, ice cream are other examples.

GIF: Rise in blood sugar due to sweet junk food

GIF: Pancreas secreting insulin

GIF: Glucose picked up by body cells with the help of insulin

Image: Body getting energy

Image: Fat getting stored in body

Let us now see the effect of junk food on our body.

Junk food which is high in sugar causes immediate rise in blood sugar levels.

As a result, the pancreas releases insulin in our blood.

Insulin is a hormone which acts like a key to open the cells.

The cells absorb sugar from the blood to provide us energy.

Excess sugar gets stored as fat in the body.

GIF: Insulin resistance

GIF: Rise in insulin and blood sugar levels

Regular eating of high sugar food can cause insulin resistance.

During insulin resistance, the body is unable to respond to insulin or use it.

Therefore, sugar is not taken up by our cells from the blood.

As a result, there is a rise in insulin levels and blood sugar levels.

Image: Vicious cycle of overeating and insulin resistance

The high insulin levels send signals for hunger to the brain.

The body starts craving more food even if it is not hungry.

This creates a vicious cycle and causes overeating.

Image: Eating one ladoo

Image: Finishing the entire plate of ladoo

Image: Hunger signals to the brain

Let us understand this with an example.

While eating a biscuit or ladoo, we can't restrict ourselves to one piece.

We crave to eat it more and more.

We mostly finish the entire packet of biscuits or many ladoos at a time.

This is because of the hunger signals which are sent to the brain.

Image: Sugar and blood pressure

GIF: Increase in sodium levels

Image: Puffed hands and feet

Sugar also has an effect on blood pressure.

On eating food high in sugar and salt, our sodium level increases.

Sugar enhances the sodium absorption in the body by the kidney.

As a result, sodium gets retained in the body.

This causes an increase in blood pressure and water retention in the body.

As a result, puffiness in hands and feet can be seen.

Image: Eating chips and signal for thirst

GIF: Increase in sodium in our blood

Image: Brain giving signals for water

Let me give you another example.

After eating chips we usually feel thirsty.

This is because sodium levels in our blood increases on eating salty food.

The brain then sends signals of thirst so that we drink more water.

Image: Water diluting sodium levels

Image: Drinking cold drink or juice

GIF: Increase in blood sugar levels

Image: Increased sodium absorption in kidney

Image: Rise in blood pressure

Drinking water will dilute the sodium levels in the body.

But, drinking juice or cold drinks will increase the sugar levels in the body.

This will result in a rise in the blood pressure.

Image: Sugar, salt and refined flour

Image: Wheat refined flour

Image: Lack of nutrients

Apart from sugar and salt, most junk food have a lot of refined flour.

Refined wheat flour is most commonly used.

These refined flours are low in fiber and lack essential nutrients.

Image: Stomach filled fibrous food

Image: Slow digestion

Image: Stomach filled with oil and sugar

Image: Fast digestion

Fiber has a very important role in the body.

It gets digested slowly and gives us a feeling of fullness for a long time.

Therefore, when we eat junk food low in fiber it gets quickly digested.

Our stomach gets empty very quickly and we feel hungry again.

Image: Gut comprising of both good and bad bacteria

Image: Fiber rich food and More good bacteria in the intestine

Image: Collage of immunity, healthy skin and reduced inflammation

Another important benefit of fiber is to maintain a healthy gut.

Our gut comprises of both good and bad bacteria.

Fiber promotes the growth of good bacteria.

Thereby, helping in proper digestion and absorption of nutrients.

Other benefits are strong immunity, healthy skin and reduced inflammation.

GIF: Passage of soft and bulky stool in the intestine easily

Image: Constipation

Fiber is also necessary for our stools to absorb water.

This makes the stools soft and bulky.

Thus, the stool moves easily through the intestine.

Since junk food is low in fiber, eating it regularly can cause constipation.

Image: junk food with Less good bacteria

Image: Inflammation in body

Image: Collage of various diseases

The other disadvantage is that junk food reduces the good bacteria in the gut.

This increases inflammation and the risk of various diseases.

Image: Unhealthy fats

Image: Collage of cakes, biscuits, baked products,

Some junk food are high in refined fats like trans-fat.

Cakes, biscuits, baked products, margarines, vanaspati all have trans-fat.

Image: Rise in unhealthy cholesterol and decrease in good cholesterol

GIF: Cholesterol in blood

Image: Collage of brain, skin, and heart

Image: Bad cholesterol and diseases

Trans-fat raises the level of bad cholesterol and lowers good cholesterol.

Cholesterol is a type of fat found in our blood.

Good cholesterol helps in proper working of the brain, skin and heart.

But, excess of bad cholesterol is not good for our health.

Image: Collage of different oils

Image: Sunflower oil, safflower oil, soybean oil

Image: Corn oil and cotton seed oil

Mostly fried junk food is prepared using oils containing omega 6 fatty acid.

Examples are sunflower oil, safflower oil, soybean oil.

Even corn oil and cottonseed oil are included.

Image: Rise in bad cholesterol

Image: Deposition of cholesterol on blood vessels

The omega 6 in these oils raises the level of bad cholesterol in our body.

Excess of bad cholesterol gets deposited on the walls of our blood vessels.

Image: Inflammation caused by Omega 6 oils

Image: insulin resistance and heart diseases

Excess of omega 6 fatty acid also enhances inflammation in the body.

This results in the development of insulin resistance and heart diseases.

Image: Collage of obesity, blood pressure and diabetes

Image: Fat deposition

Image: Damaged heart

Excessive consumption of junk food has many harmful effects.

Obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes are the most common.

They can also cause a risk of increased bad cholesterol and heart diseases.

Image: Sleep disturbances

Image: Cyst on ovaries

Sleep disturbances or development of cysts in the ovaries can also happen.
Image: Child holding stomach

Image: Child vomiting and refusing to eat

Eating too much junk food can upset the stomach.

You may experience nausea, vomiting and reduced appetite.

Image: Collage of dental caries, itching reaction, cancer Other effects of junk food are dental caries, allergies and cancer.
Image: Lack of nutrients

Image: Poor immune system

Image: Feeling tired and sleepy

Junk food lacks the necessary nutrients to keep our body healthy.

Therefore, eating too much junk food can weaken our immune system.

Due to which we may often feel tired and weak.

Image: Collage of ill effects of junk food

Image: A child eating lots of junk food

Usually, we are not aware about the ill effects of junk food on our health.

Without giving a thought we eat them regularly in large amounts.

Image: Choosing our food Therefore, we should be careful about choosing our food so that we stay healthy.
Acknowledgement Slide This brings us to the end of the tutorial.

Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Bellatony911, Misbah