C and Cpp

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Introduction to C

Powerful features, simple syntax, and portability make C a preferred language among programmers for business and industrial applications.Portability means that C programs written for a computer with a particular kind of processor, say Intel, can be executed on computers with different processors such as Motorola, Sun Sparc, or IBM with little or no modification.C language is widely used in the development of operating systems.

An Operating System(OS) is a software(collection of programs) that controls the various functions of a computer. Also it makes other programs on your computer work.

For example, you cannot work with a word processor program, such as Microsoft Word, if there is no operating system installed on your computer.Windows, Unix, Linux, Solaris, and MacOS are some of the popular operating systems.

Dennis M. Ritchie, a systems engineer at Bell Laboratories, New Jersey developed C in the early 1970’salthough designed for the Unix operating system, it soon proved itself a powerful, general purpose programming language.

C++ is a programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs. C++ is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose, powerful programming language. C++ is an object oriented language. It supports features like classes and objects, Polymorphism, Encapsulation, Inheritance etc. C++ is also used for hardware design.

The Spoken Tutorial effort for C and C++ is led by Ashwini Patil from IIT BOMBAY, under the guidance of various Professors from IIT BOMBAY.

Other Contributors : Chaitanya Mokashi, Ritwik Joshi, Dhawal Goyal

Learners: High School and UG/PG CSE/CS/IT students and anyone who wishes to learn basic programming.

Basic Level

1) First C Program

  • -Header Files
    • example: #include <stdio.h>
  • main()
  • Curly braces { }
  • printf()
  • semicolon ;
  • Compiling a C program
    • example: gcc filename.c -o output parameter
  • Executing a C program
    • example: ./output parameter
  • Errors

2) First C++ Program

  • Header files
    • --example: #include <iostream>
  • main()
  • Curly braces { }
  • -cout<<
  • semicolon ;
  • Compiling a C++ program
    • example: g++ filename.cpp -o output parameter
  • Executing a C program
    • example: ./output parameter

3) Tokens in C and C++

  • Data types, constants, identifiers
  • Keywords
    • example: if, break, else
  • Constants
  • Data types
    • example: int, float, char, double
  • Format specifiers
    • example: %d, %f, %c, %lf
  • Range of data types
  • Variables
  • Identifier
  • Errors

4) Functions in C and C++

  • What is a function
  • Syntax for declaration of a function
  • Function with arguments
    • example: return-type function-name(parameter);
  • Function without arguments
    • example: return-type function-name;
  • Calling a function
  • Errors

5) Scope of Variables in C and C++

  • Introduction
  • Syntax of declaring a variable
    • example: data-type var-name;
  • Syntax for initializing a variable
    • example: data-type var-name = value;
  • Scope of variables
  • Global variable
  • Local variable
  • Error

6) If And Else If statement in C and C++

  • What are Statements.
  • Syntax for if and
  • If-else Statement
  • Errors

7) Nested if and switch statement in C and C++

  • Nested if statement.
  • Switch statement.
  • Syntax for nested-if statement
  • Syntax for switch statement
  • break statement
  • Comparison between nested if-else and switch statement
  • Errors

8) Increment and Decrement Operators in C and C++

  • Increment Operator
    • example: ++
  • Postfix increment
    • example: a++
  • Prefix increment
    • example: ++a
  • Decrement Operator
    • example: --
  • Postfix decrement
    • example: a--
  • Prefix decrement
    • example: --a
  • Typecasting
  • Errors

9) Arithmetic Operators in C and C++

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Addition Operator
    • example: a + b
  • Subtraction Operator
    • example: a - b
  • Multiplication Operator
    • example: a * b
  • Division Operator
    • example: a \ b
  • Modulus Operator
    • example: a % b
  • Errors

10) Relational Operators in C and C++

  • Double Equal to
    • example: a == b
  • Not Equal to
    • example: a != b
  • Greater Than
    • example: a > b
  • Less Than
    • example: a < b
  • Greater than Equal To
    • example: a >= b
  • Less Than Equal To
    • example: a <= b
  • Errors

11) Logical Operators in C and C++

  • And &&
  • Or ||
  • Not !
  • Errors

Intermediate level

12) Loops in C and C++

  • Loops
  • Syntax for while and do-while loop
  • Comparison of while and do-while loop
  • Syntax for
  • for loop
  • Errors

13) Arrays in C and C++

  • What are arrays
  • 1-D Arrays
  • Syntax for Declaration of arrays
    • example: data type array_name [size];
  • Syntax for Initialization of arrays
    • example: data type array_name [size]=value;
  • Accepting values from the user
  • Errors

14) Working with 2-D Arrays in C and C++

  • What are 2-D Arrays.
  • Range of arrays
  • Syntax for Declaration of 2-D arrays
    • example: data type array_name[row][column];
  • Syntax for initialization of 2-D arrays
    • example: data type array_name[row][column]=




  • Errors

15) Strings in C and C++

  • What is a string
  • Syntax for declaring a string
  • Syntax for initializing a string
  • To read a string from keyboard
  • Errors

16) String Library Functions in C and C++

  • What are string library functions.
  • Types of string library functions
    • Strcpy
    • Strlen
    • Strcmp
    • Strcat
  • Errors

Advanced level

17) Working with Structures in C and C++

  • Introduction
  • Syntax of structures
  • Declaration and initialization
  • Declaration of structure variable
  • Accessing structure variables

18) Understanding Pointers in C and C++

  • Introduction
  • Syntax of Pointer
    • example: int *iptr;
  • Declaration
    • example:

int a; (integer a) int *aptr; (pointer to an integer *aptr) aptr = &a; (aptr set to address of a) Address Pointer

  • Errors

19) Function call in C and C++

  • types of function calls
  • function pass by value
  • function pass by reference

20) File Handling in C

  • File handling functions
  • Opening a File closing a file
    • example: fopen, fclose
  • Reading data from a File