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Revision as of 15:09, 13 June 2019

Visual Cue
Title slide Welcome to the Spoken Tutorial on pre-pregnancy nutrition.
Collage: Veg and non-veg foods

Image: Pre-pregnant woman

In this tutorial we will learn about-Nutritional requirements during reproductive age and pre-pregnancy period.
Image: of muscle Let us first begin with Protein:
Image: muscle tissue

Image: cell repair

Image: growth and development

Image: joint

Image: healthy liver

Image: immunity

Image: provides energy

  • Protein is required for growth and maintenance of muscle tissue
  • It aids in cell repair and bone development as well as for joints,
  • Helps in improving immunity and maintaining a healthy liver,
  • And, also provides energy

Image: digestive system and body

Image: breakdown of toxins

Image: maintain blood sugar

Image: carry signal to and fro to the brain

Protein forms chemicals which helps in -

  • digestion,
  • break down of toxins in the body
  • maintaining blood sugar and
  • carrying signal to and from the brain
Image:Diminished growth of fetus for its age

Image: poor height and high risk of infection

Image: poor memory and motor skills in baby

Group Image: infection in baby with viruses

Deficiency of protein leads to -

  • diminished growth of fetus for its age,
  • poor height, memory and motor skills in the baby,
  • along with high risk of infection
Image: wrinkled skin

Image: hairfall

Image: tiredness and weakness

Image: frequent infection in adults

Image: muscle loss

In adults it leads to -

  • Wrinkling of skin,
  • Hair fall,
  • Tiredness and weakness,
  • Frequent infections and
  • Muscle loss
Group image: hair, nails and skin Another protein called Keratin is an important part of -hair, nails and skin
Image: collage of protein rich foods

Image: 22 green and red dots for amino acids

Image: 9 red dots for amino acids


The Protein is made up of different substances called amino acids

  • There are in total 22 Amino acids
  • Out of which 9 amino acids have to be taken from the diet
Image: complete protein non veg collage

Image: incomplete protein veg collage

Let us now look at the two types of Protein which are -
  • The Complete protein and
  • The Incomplete protein
Image: complete protein collage of non veg foods while editing All 9 Amino acids mentioned earlier are present in animal proteins.
  • That is why animal proteins are called complete proteins.
Image: collage of pulses

Image: collage of cereals

Image: collage of pulses

On the other hand, In plant based proteins-
  • some of these 9 necessary Amino acids are in lesser amounts

For example, cereals are low in Lysine while pulses are low in Methionine

Image: combination of grains and pulse
  • It is therefore important to consume different plant proteins together in combinations
  • For example, Grains and pulses should be consumed in a combination
  • as they both will provide enough quantities of necessary Amino acids
Image: fats droplet

Image: Good health

Now we will learn about another important nutrient - Fat
  • Good fats from foods are important for good health
Image: body with blue dots indicating fat

Image: collage of omega-3 fatty acid rich food

There are some fats that cannot be produced by the body

Like -

  • Omega-3 fatty acids

Hence they should be taken from the diet

Image: heart

Image: inflammation in body

Image: pregnant woman

Image: low birth weight baby

Image: intelligence in baby

  • These fats maintain heart health.
  • Reduce inflammation in the body
  • And can help to improve the chances of getting pregnant
  • They also reduce the risk of premature birth of the baby
  • And increase intelligence of the baby
Image: group image of eye, cell growth, fertility and immune system After learning about protein and fat, we will now learn about vitamin-A
Image: eye health

Image: cell growth

Image: increases chances of pregnancy

Image: immune system

Vitamin-A helps to maintain healthy eyes ,
  • It regulates cell growth,
  • increases the chances of pregnancy and
  • Improves immunity during pre-pregnancy period
Image: strength and health of woman Like Vitamin A, the entire Vitamin B-complex plays a crucial role in-
  • Strength and health of women in all stages of life.
Image: vitamin B-6 rich food sources collage Among all the B-Vitamins, we will first look at Vitamin B-6- pyridoxine
Image: nervous system

Image: brain development

Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine is required
  • For functioning of the nervous system,
  • Thereby improving the brain development
Image: pregnancy related nausea * Also, it may provide relief from pregnancy related nausea.
Group image: anemic cells, NTD, infertility, miscarriage Yet another nutrient is, Vitamin B12-
Group Image: anemia

Image: Neural tube defects

Image: add arrows to indicate spine and central nervous system of baby while editing

Image: first month of pregnancy

Which along with folate & choline helps to prevent -
  • Anemia and Neural tube defects

Neural tube defects are birth defects that -

  • affect the spine and central nervous system of the baby,
  • which are formed during the first month of pregnancy
Image: neural tube

Image: brain and spine

Note that, A neural tube is a part of the foetus that develops into the brain and spinal cord.
Image: group image of three collage with rich sources of folate, vitamin B12 and choline rich food Hence, it is important to have enough
  • Folate,
  • Vitamin-B12 and
  • Choline in the body before getting pregnant.
Image: anemic cells

Image: infertility add cross mark while editing

Image: miscarriage

Deficiency of vitamin B-12 also leads to Anemia, infertility and miscarriage.
Image: group image Now, we will learn about another important nutrient - Folate
Image: cell development

Image: arrows on cells and between lungs to other organs while editing

Folate which is also known as Vitamin-B9,
  • helps the body to make healthy new cells.

These cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.

Image: anemia

Image: brain and spine

Deficiency of folate in pregnant mothers leads to
  • Anemia and
  • defects of the brain and spine called Neural Tube Defect
Image: neural tube defects group image Note that:

Neural Tube Defects has been explained earlier in the same tutorial.

Image: Rbc

Image: fetal growth

We will now learn about the role of IronIron is required for formation of Hemoglobin in the blood and for fetal growth.
Image: high blood pressure

Image: LBW baby

Image: miscarriage

Low levels of hemoglobin in pregnancy can lead to
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy
  • Preterm delivery
  • Low birth weight baby and
  • Miscarriages
GIF : Rbc moving

Image: anemic cells

Apart from this Hemoglobin helps to transport oxygen to other tissues and cells

Low levels of Hemoglobin or iron

  • leads to Anemia.
Image: menstrual cramps

Image: worms infestation

Image: collage of iron food sources

Image: poor absorption

Image: peanut with yellow layer

Moreover, Iron may be low in women Due to -
  • Monthly menstruation,
  • Worm infestation
  • Diet low in Iron and
  • Poor absorption due to Phytic acid and Oxalates in the food
Image: collage of all cooking methods

Image: soaking

Image: sprouting

Image: roasting

Image: fermentation

In order to decrease Phytic acid and Oxalates

And to increase absorption of nutrients, use pre-cooking methods like -

  • Soaking,
  • Sprouting
  • Roasting and
  • Fermentation
Image: tiredness

Image: breathlessness

GIF: Heart palpitation

Image: Pale skin

Signs of Iron deficiency Anemia are-
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Breathlessness
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Pale skin
Image: collage of vitamin C sources

Image: vitamin-C and immunity

Image: woman with yellow outline

Remember , With Iron, always consume Vitamin-C rich foods as it will help in iron absorption

Vitamin-C also enhances immunity and thus reduces infections.

Group Image: bones and vit-d

Image: building healthy bones

Gif: fetus requires calcium

Image: development of bones

Image: development of teeth

Next we will learn the importance of Calcium & Vitamin DIt is suggested to consume Calcium as it helps in development of bones

The fetus requires Calcium for bone and teeth development.

Image: strong and porous bone

Image: spine for absorption of calcium

Low levels of Calcium can cause weak bones

However, remember that-

  • Vitamin-D is required to absorb calcium in the body.
Image: vitamin D exposure

Image: clock

Image: clock

The best way to obtain Vitamin-D is-
  • exposure to sunlight between 11.00 am to 3.00 pm for 15 to 20 mins
Image: brain development Next, we will learn about Choline.
GIF: brain development

Image: memory and attention in the baby

Choline is important for brain development of the babyAs it enhances memory and attention span.
Image: fatty liver

Image: miscarriages

Image: neural tube defects

Deficiency of Choline leads to-
  • fatty liver in adults
  • Miscarriages and
  • Neural tube defects in fetus -
  • which is mentioned earlier in this tutorial
Image: zinc Let’s move ahead and learn the importance of Zinc,
Image: improves immunity

Image: cell growth

Image: building DNA and protein

Image: healing of wounds

Image: fertility

Image: fetal development

Zinc is important for immunity and cell growth

It helps in making genetic material and protein in the body It helps in healing of wounds. Also it contributes to ovulation and fertility in women And it is important for growth of the fetus

Image: affect sense of taste

Image: sense of smell

Image: placenta

Image: placental cord

Note that - Lack of dietary Zinc can affect -
  • the sense of taste and smell.
  • delay the growth of placenta:
    • which is the cord that transports nutrients from mother to the fetus.
Image: affects growth of embryo

Image: results in LBW

Lack of Zinc also - affects the growth of embryo

And results in low birth weight baby

Image: salt ( iodine)

Image: thyroid gland

Another significant nutrient that we will look at, is, Iodine-'Iodine' is required by the body to maintain normal levels of thyroid hormone,
  • which are produced by the Thyroid gland
Image: miscarriage

Image: stillbirth

Image: congenital abnormalities like-

Image: cleft lip

Image: cleft palate

Image: low birth weight baby

Image: stunted growth

Image: mental retardation

Deficiency of Iodine in mother leads to- Increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth of the baby
  • And it can also lead to-Birth deformities
  • Low birth weight
  • Stunted growth and
  • Mental retardation in the baby
Image: nervous system

Image: prevents cramps and

Image: migraine headache

Magnesium is another nutrient which helps to calm the nervous system.

It prevents

  • cramps and
  • migraine headaches by relaxing the blood vessels in the brain
Image: blood pressure

Image: maintains rhythm of heart

Image: DNA production

Image: bone development

It also maintains healthy blood pressure and rhythm of the heart
  • It helps in production of genetic material and
  • enhances bone development
Image: healthy nutrition for healthy pregnancy

Group image: alcohol

Image: miscarriage

Image: weak embryo

Image: tobacco

Apart from a healthy nutrition for a healthy pregnancy -,It is important to avoid Alcohol as it can lead to miscarriage or weak embryo.

Other things to be avoided are-

  • Tobacco
Group image: Cigarettes, Drugs, Self medication

Group Image: Sugar, tea and coffee, junk food

  • Cigarettes
  • Drugs
  • Self medication
  • Excessive use of sugar,
  • Tea and coffee,
  • Junk food and sweetened beverages
Image: female reproductive system

Image: adverse effects on pregnancy

As these substances can affect reproductive health and have adverse effects on pregnancy.
image: woman on weighing scale Note that,

It is also important to manage weight before becoming pregnant,

Image: underweight women

Image: low birth weight baby

Image: 8 months calendar indicating 7 and 8 months

Underweight women give birth to small babies or preterm babies
  • Which are born during 7 to 8 months of pregnancy
Image: radiant warmer Such babies are at highest risk of premature deaths.
Image: women with increased weight and glucometer and bp

Image: neonatal baby with complications

However, on the other hand, Women with increased weight have -
  • high risk of gestational diabetes and blood pressure.

Also, it can lead to neonatal complications.

Image: consulting a healthcare provider Therefore, women should consult a healthcare provider
  • to maintain a healthy weight before getting pregnant.
Image: collage of cereals, non-veg food, pulses, nuts, eggs, vegetables, dairy Along with this, it is very important to consume a healthy, well-balanced diet - containing vegetarian and/or non-vegetarian foods
Collage: Nonveg foods

Collage: dry fish

Remember, that all non-veg foods are rich in-
  • protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-9
  • zinc, iron , calcium, choline and Vitamin-D
Collage: Pulses, millets, cereals, nuts Along with animal derived food, plant derived foods,* Pulses, millet, cereals, nuts and seeds will help in formation of-
  • Immune system,
  • Muscles,
  • Bones,
Collage: Pulses, millets, cereals, nuts

Collage: Fruits and vegetables

  • liver,
  • hair,
  • skin ,
  • eyes and
  • brain.
Group Image: collage while editing


Image: Curd

Image: Cheese

Image: paneer

Apart from these, dairy products will also aid in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby
Collage: Leafy vegetables

Collage: Oil seeds


Leafy vegetables and seeds are also rich in -

Calcium helps in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby

Collage: Food sources of Vitamin C Like leafy vegetables, Fruits are also rich in Vitamin-C and they help in- improving immunity,

absorption of Iron and prevent infections

Collage: Beans, nuts, seeds For fertility of the woman and growth of the baby-Beans, nuts and seeds should be consumed along with other non-veg food.
Collage: Dairy products Various non-veg foods like Fish, dairy, eggs help to-
  • maintain normal thyroid hormone,
  • Improve growth and
  • prevent physical defects
Collage: Food sources of Magnesium Nuts and seeds are rich in magnesium and are essential for-
  • Functioning of nervous system and
  • prevention of leg cramps
Slide: Acknowledgement slide This brings us to the end of this tutorial on-

Pre-pregnancy Nutrition.

Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors