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Title slide Welcome to the Spoken Tutorial on pre-pregnancy nutrition.
Collage: Veg and non-veg foods

Image: Pre-pregnant woman

In this tutorial, we will learn about -
  • Nutritional requirements during reproductive age and pre-pregnancy period.
Image: muscle Let us first begin with Protein:
Image: muscle tissue

Image: cell repair

Image: growth and development

Image: joint

Image: healthy liver

Image: immunity

Image: provides energy

  • Protein is required for growth and maintenance of muscle tissue
  • It aids in cell repair and bone development as well as for joints,
  • Helps in improving immunity and maintaining a healthy liver,
  • And, also provides energy

Image: digestive system and body

Image: breakdown of toxins

Image: maintain blood sugar

Image: carry signal to and fro to the brain

Protein forms chemicals which helps in -

  • digestion,
  • break down of toxins in the body
  • maintaining blood sugar and
  • carrying signal to and from the brain
Image:Diminished growth of fetus for its age

Image: poor height and high risk of infection

Image: poor memory and motor skills in baby

Group Image: infection in baby with viruses

Deficiency of Protein leads to -

  • diminished growth of fetus for its age,
  • poor height, memory and motor skills in the baby,
  • along with high risk of infection
Image: wrinkled skin

Image: hairfall

Image: tiredness and weakness

Image: frequent infection in adults

Image: muscle loss

In adults, it leads to -

  • Wrinkling of skin,
  • Hair fall,
  • Tiredness and weakness,
  • Frequent infections and
  • Muscle loss
Group image: hair, nails and skin Another Protein called Keratin is an important part of - hair, nails and skin
Image: collage of Protein rich foods

Image: 22 green and red dots for amino acids

Image: 9 red dots for amino acids


The Protein is made up of different substances called Amino acids

  • There are in total 22 Amino acids
  • Out of which 9 Amino acids have to be taken from the diet
Image: complete Protein non veg collage

Image: incomplete Protein veg collage

Let us now look at the two types of Protein which are -
  • The Complete Protein and
  • The Incomplete Protein
Image: complete Protein collage of non veg foods while editing All 9 Amino acids mentioned earlier are present in animal Proteins.
  • That is why animal Proteins are called complete Proteins.
Image: collage of pulses

Image: collage of cereals

Image: collage of pulses

On the other hand, In plant based Proteins -
  • some of these 9 necessary Amino acids are in lesser amounts

For example, cereals are low in Lysine while pulses are low in Methionine

Image: combination of grains and pulse
  • It is therefore important to consume different plant Proteins together in combinations
  • For example, Grains and pulses should be consumed in a combination
  • as they both will provide enough quantities of necessary Amino acids
Image: fats droplet

Image: Good health

Now we will learn about another important nutrient - Fat
  • Good fats from foods are important for good health
Image: body with blue dots indicating fat

Image: collage of omega-3 fatty acid rich food

There are some fats that cannot be produced by the body

Like -

  • Omega-3 fatty acids

Hence they should be taken from the diet

Image: heart

Image: inflammation in body

Image: pregnant woman

Image: low birth weight baby

Image: intelligence in baby

  • These fats maintain heart health.
  • Reduce inflammation in the body
  • And can help to improve the chances of getting pregnant
  • They also reduce the risk of premature birth of the baby
  • And increase intelligence of the baby
Image: group image of eye, cell growth, fertility and immune system After learning about Protein and fat, we will now learn about vitamin-A
Image: eye health

Image: cell growth

Image: increases chances of pregnancy

Image: immune system

Vitamin-A helps to maintain healthy eyes ,
  • It regulates cell growth,
  • increases the chances of pregnancy and
  • Improves immunity during pre-pregnancy period
Image: strength and health of woman Like Vitamin A, the entire Vitamin B-complex plays a crucial role in-
  • Strength and health of women in all stages of life.
Image: Vitamin B-6 rich food sources collage Among all the B-Vitamins, we will first look at Vitamin B-6- pyridoxine
Image: nervous system

Image: brain development

Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine is required
  • For functioning of the nervous system,
  • Thereby improving the brain development
Image: pregnancy related nausea Also, it may provide relief from pregnancy related nausea.
Group image: anemic cells, NTD, infertility, miscarriage Yet another nutrient is, Vitamin B12-
Group Image: anemia

Image: Neural tube defects

Which along with folate & choline helps to prevent -
  • Anemia and Neural tube defects
Image: Neural tube defects

Image: add arrows to indicate spine and central nervous system of baby while editing

Image: first month of pregnancy

Neural tube defects are birth defects that -
  • affect the spine and central nervous system of the baby,
  • which are formed during the first month of pregnancy
Image: neural tube

Image: brain and spine

Note that, a neural tube is a part of the foetus that develops into the brain and spinal cord.
Image: group image of three collage with rich sources of folate, vitamin B12 and choline rich food Hence, it is important to have enough
  • Folate,
  • Vitamin-B12 and
  • Choline in the body before getting pregnant.
Image: anemic cells

Image: infertility add cross mark while editing

Image: miscarriage

Deficiency of vitamin B-12 also leads to Anemia, infertility and miscarriage.
Image: group image Now, we will learn about another important nutrient - Folate
Image: cell development

Image: arrows on cells and between lungs to other organs while editing

Folate which is also known as Vitamin-B9,
  • helps the body to make healthy new cells.

These cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all parts of the body.

Image: anemia

Image: brain and spine

Deficiency of folate in pregnant mothers leads to
  • Anemia and
  • defects of the brain and spine called Neural Tube Defects
Image: neural tube defects group image Note that:

Neural Tube Defects has been explained earlier in the same tutorial.

Image: Rbc

Image: fetal growth

We will now learn about the role of Iron
  • Iron is required for formation of Hemoglobin in the blood and for fetal growth.
Image: high blood pressure

Image: LBW baby

Image: miscarriage

Low levels of hemoglobin in pregnancy can lead to -
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy
  • Preterm delivery
  • Low birth weight baby and
  • Miscarriages
GIF : Rbc moving

Image: anemic cells

Apart from this,

Hemoglobin helps to transport oxygen to other tissues and cells

Low levels of Hemoglobin or iron

  • leads to Anemia.
Image: menstrual cramps

Image: worms infestation

Image: collage of iron food sources

Image: poor absorption

Image: peanut with yellow layer

Moreover, Iron may be low in women due to -
  • Monthly menstruation,
  • Worm infestation
  • Diet low in Iron and
  • Poor absorption due to Phytic acid and Oxalates in the food
Image: collage of all cooking methods

Image: soaking

Image: sprouting

Image: roasting

Image: fermentation

In order to decrease, Phytic acid and Oxalates and to increase absorption of nutrients -

Use pre-cooking methods like -

  • Soaking,
  • Sprouting
  • Roasting and
  • Fermentation
Image: tiredness

Image: breathlessness

GIF: Heart palpitation

Image: Pale skin

Signs of Iron deficiency Anemia are -
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Breathlessness
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Pale skin
Image: collage of vitamin C sources

Image: vitamin-C and immunity

Image: woman with yellow outline

Remember, with Iron -
  • Always consume Vitamin-C rich foods as it will help in iron absorption
  • Vitamin-C also enhances immunity and thus reduces infections.
Group Image: bones and vitamin-d

Image: building healthy bones

Gif: fetus requires calcium

Image: development of bones

Image: development of teeth

Next, we will learn the importance of Calcium & Vitamin D

  • It is suggested to consume Calcium as it helps in development of bones
  • The fetus requires Calcium for bone and teeth development.
Image: strong and porous bone

Image: spine for absorption of calcium

Low levels of Calcium can cause weak bones

However, remember that-

  • Vitamin-D is required to absorb calcium in the body.
Image: vitamin D exposure

Image: clock

Image: clock

The best way to obtain Vitamin-D is -
  • exposure to sunlight between 11.00 am to 3.00 pm for 15 to 20 mins
Image: brain development Next, we will learn about Choline.
GIF: brain development

Image: memory and attention in the baby

Choline is important for brain development of the baby
  • as it enhances memory and attention span.
Image: fatty liver

Image: miscarriages

Image: neural tube defects

Deficiency of Choline leads to-
  • fatty liver in adults
  • Miscarriages and
  • Neural tube defects in fetus -

which is mentioned earlier in this tutorial

Image: zinc Let’s move ahead and learn the importance of Zinc,
Image: improves immunity

Image: cell growth

Image: building DNA and protein

Image: healing of wounds

Image: fertility

Image: fetal development

Zinc is important for immunity and cell growth -

  • It helps in making genetic material and protein in the body
  • It helps in healing of wounds.
  • Also it contributes to ovulation and fertility in women
  • And it is important for growth of the fetus
Image: affect sense of taste

Image: sense of smell

Image: placenta

Image: placental cord

Note that - lack of dietary Zinc can affect -
  • the sense of taste and smell.
  • delay the growth of placenta:
    • which is the cord that transports nutrients from mother to the fetus.
Image: affects growth of embryo

Image: results in LBW

Lack of Zinc also - affects the growth of embryo

And results in low birth weight baby

Image: salt ( iodine)

Image: thyroid gland

Another significant nutrient that we will look at, is, Iodine -

Iodine is required by the body to maintain normal levels of thyroid hormone,

  • which are produced by the Thyroid gland
Image: miscarriage

Image: stillbirth

Image: congenital abnormalities like-

Image: cleft lip

Image: cleft palate

Image: low birth weight baby

Image: stunted growth

Image: mental retardation

Deficiency of Iodine in mother leads to -

Increased risk of miscarriage and stillbirth of the baby

  • And it can also lead to - birth deformities
  • Low birth weight
  • Stunted growth and
  • Mental retardation in the baby
Image: nervous system

Image: prevents cramps and

Image: migraine headache

Magnesium is another nutrient which helps to calm the nervous system.

It prevents -

  • cramps and
  • migraine headaches by relaxing the blood vessels in the brain
Image: blood pressure

Image: maintains rhythm of heart

Image: DNA production

Image: bone development

It also maintains healthy blood pressure and rhythm of the heart
  • It helps in production of genetic material and
  • enhances bone development
Image: healthy nutrition for healthy pregnancy

Group image: alcohol

Image: miscarriage

Image: weak embryo

Apart from a healthy nutrition for a healthy pregnancy -
  • it is important to avoid Alcohol as it can lead to miscarriage or weak embryo.
Image: tobacco Other things to be avoided are -
  • Tobacco
Group image: Cigarettes, Drugs, Self medication

Group Image: Sugar, tea and coffee, junk food

  • Cigarettes
  • Drugs
  • Self medication
  • Excessive use of sugar,
  • Tea and coffee,
  • Junk food and sweetened beverages
Image: female reproductive system

Image: adverse effects on pregnancy

As these substances can affect reproductive health and have adverse effects on pregnancy.
image: woman on weighing scale Note that,

It is also important to manage weight before becoming pregnant,

Image: underweight women

Image: low birth weight baby

Image: 8 months calendar indicating 7 and 8 months

Underweight women give birth to small babies or preterm babies
  • Which are born during 7 to 8 months of pregnancy
Image: radiant warmer Such babies are at highest risk of premature deaths.
Image: women with increased weight and glucometer and bp

Image: neonatal baby with complications

However, on the other hand, Women with increased weight have -
  • high risk of gestational diabetes and blood pressure.

Also, it can lead to neonatal complications.

Image: consulting a healthcare provider Therefore, women should consult a healthcare provider
  • to maintain a healthy weight before getting pregnant.
Image: collage of cereals, non-veg food, pulses, nuts, eggs, vegetables, dairy Along with this, it is very important to consume a healthy, well-balanced diet containing -
  • vegetarian and/or non-vegetarian foods
Collage: Non-veg foods

Collage: dry fish

Remember, that all non-veg foods are rich in -
  • protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-9
  • zinc, iron , calcium, choline and Vitamin-D
Collage: Pulses, millets, cereals, nuts Along with animal derived food, plant derived foods,
  • Pulses, millet, cereals, nuts and seeds will help in formation of -
    • Immune system,
    • Muscles,
    • Bones,
Collage: Pulses, millets, cereals, nuts

Collage: Fruits and vegetables

  • liver,
  • hair,
  • skin ,
  • eyes and
  • brain
Group Image: collage while editing


Image: Curd

Image: Cheese

Image: paneer

Apart from these, dairy products will also aid in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby
Collage: Leafy vegetables

Collage: Oil seeds


Leafy vegetables and seeds are also rich in Calcium -

  • and help in the formation of bones and teeth of the baby
Collage: Food sources of Vitamin C Like leafy vegetables, Fruits are also rich in Vitamin-C and they help in -
  • improving immunity,
  • absorption of Iron and
  • prevent infections
Collage: Beans, nuts, seeds For fertility of the woman and growth of the baby -

Beans, nuts and seeds should be consumed along with other non-veg food.

Collage: Dairy products Various non-veg foods like Fish, eggs and dairy products help to -
  • maintain normal thyroid hormone,
  • Improve growth and
  • prevent physical defects
Collage: Food sources of Magnesium Nuts and seeds are rich in magnesium and are essential for -
  • Functioning of nervous system and
  • prevention of leg cramps
Slide: Acknowledgement slide This brings us to the end of this tutorial on -

Pre-pregnancy Nutrition.

Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Bellatony911, Gmungrey