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Revision as of 13:11, 16 August 2019

Visual Cue
Title Slide Welcome to the spoken tutorial on Basics of newborn care

Image: A mother carrying a baby

Image: Umbilical cord care

Image: Breastfeeding and burping a newborn

Image: Diapering

Image: Diaper rash

Image: Sleeping baby

In this tutorial, we will learn-
  • How to handle a newborn
  • Umbilical cord care
  • Feeding and burping a newborn
  • Diapering and diaper rash and
  • Sleeping pattern of a newborn
Image: Excited relatives

Collage: Key rules while handling a newborn baby

Image: Newborn & immune system

  • The entire family gets excited upon the birth of a newborn and
  • Everyone wants to see the baby and hold the baby.
  • Therefore it is necessary to set some key rules while handling a newborn baby.
  • Newborns don’t have a strong immune system.
  • This makes them prone to infections.

Image: Sick baby

Image: Clean hands, dirty hands

Image: Washing hands with soap and water

Image: Drying hands

  • To protect the baby from infections -
    • it is important to have clean hands before touching or holding the baby
  • To clean the hands-
    • wash with soap and water and dry well using a clean dry cloth before holding the newborn.
Image: A mother is carrying a newborn

Image: A mother is placing the baby down

Now comes the first thing to learn,which is how to hold a baby.
  • Hold the baby by-
    • supporting her head and neck with one hand and
    • bottom with the other hand.
  • To lay a baby down-
    • always support the baby’s head and neck, and hold her bottom as well
Image: A mother tickling the baby’s leg

Image: A mother is supporting the baby in sitting position

Image: Touching the baby’s ear

  • On the other hand, to wake a sleeping baby up, do the following -
    • tickle the baby's feet or
    • lift and support the baby in a sitting position or
    • gently touch the baby’s ear.

Image: Newborn baby

Collage: Precautions to be taken while handling a newborn

Image: Jiggling the baby on the knee

Image: Throwing the baby in air

Image; Jerky movements of the baby’s neck

Image: Internal injuries

Always remember, that a newborn baby is sensitive -

Some precautions to be taken while handling a newborn are -

  • The newborn is not ready for rough play
  • Therefore, do not jiggle the baby on the knee or throw her in the air
  • Never shake the newborn, whether in play or in frustration
  • Avoid sudden jerky movements of the baby’s neck

All these may cause internal injuries to the baby

Image: A baby with umbilical cord stump

Image: Fetus

Image: Natural delivery, C-section delivery

Image: Umbilical cord clamping

We will now learn about Umbilical cord care at home.
  • When the baby is in the mother’s womb, the umbilical cord is the baby's lifeline
  • However, it is no longer needed once the baby is born.
  • Within a few minutes after birth-
    • as soon as the cord stops pulsating, it is clamped.

Image: Hospital

Image: dry and wither umbilical cord

Image: A baby with umbilical cord stump

Image: A baby with fallen umbilical cord

GIF: Calendar

  • By the time the baby goes home from the hospital-
    • the cord begins to dry and shrivel
  • The cord falls off by itself in about one to two weeks.

Image: Umbilical cord infections

Collage: Umbilical cord care

Please note that-
  • The umbilical cord may be a place for infection to enter the baby's body
  • Hence, it is essential to take care of it properly.

Image: A baby with umbilical cord stump

Image: A cloth is covering the baby’s umbilical cord

Image: Sponge bath

For that, please remember-
  • Baby’s cord should be kept dry and exposed to air
  • Only sponge baths should be given until the cord falls off

Image: A cord kept outside the baby’s nappy

Image: Folding the edge of the baby’s nappy

  • The cord should be kept on the outside of the baby's nappy or
    • can also be folded down to the top edge of the nappy.

Image: Mother and doctor

Image: Bleeding from the end of the cord

Image: Bleeding from the navel area

Image: Swelling and redness near the navel area

Image: Pain near the navel area

Image: A baby with umbilical cord stump and calendar

Image: Mother and doctor

Please consult the baby’s doctor if there is -
  • Bleeding from the end of the cord or the area near the skin
  • Pus
  • Swelling or redness around the navel
  • Signs that the navel area is painful to the baby
  • And if the cord has not fallen off by one month of age
Image: Bleeding when the stump is about to fall off

Image: Bleeding after the cord falls off

Image: Pulling the umbilical cord with Red cross mark

Sometimes it might also happen that -
  • There may be a small amount of blood-
    • when the stump is about to fall off
    • and also after the cord falls off,

but this should be stopped quickly Remember, never pull the cord off.

Image: Applying cream on baby’s umbilical cord

Image: Bandage on baby’s umbilical cord

  • Do not apply any cream or powder or
  • Tie any bandage on the baby’s umbilicus after the cord has fallen.

Image: Hunger cue

Image: Initiation of breastfeeding

For the nutritional aspects of the newborn care we will discuss -
  • How to feed the baby
  • The newborn should be breastfed within 1 hour after delivery.
Image: Breastfeeding

Image: Skin to skin contact

Image: Hunger cues

  • Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first 6 months.
  • Additionally, the mother should-
    • provide adequate skin to skin contact to the baby and
    • observe the hunger cues of the baby

All these points have been discussed in other tutorials of the same series

Collage: waking up a sleeping baby

Image: Breastfeeding

Image: Premature babies

  • In some cases, newborns may need to be awakened frequently-
    • so that they are fed enough.
    • especially the smaller- premature babies.

Image: A mother talking to a healthy baby

Image: A baby who is disinterested in sucking

Image: Mother and doctor

  • Incase, a baby - healthy or premature, does not seem to be interested in sucking then -
    • the mother should consult a doctor or health worker
Image: Breastfeeding - side lying hold

Image: Fussy baby

Image: Burping the baby

Image: Hunger cues

While breastfeeding, babies often swallow air, which can make them fussy.

To prevent this, make the baby sit and burp after every feed.

  • It has been explained in another tutorial of the same series.
Image: Diapering

Image: Diaper rash

Image: A baby with wet nappy

Image: Cleaning the baby’sgenital area using water and washcloth

Image: Wiping the baby’s genital area

Image: Cleaning the baby - girl’s genital area

Next is diapering:
  • After each bowel movement or if the cloth nappy is wet-
    • lay the baby on her back and remove the dirty nappy
    • use water and soft washcloth to gently clean and wipe the baby's genital area
    • do not apply soap on baby’s genital area
    • whenever wiping a girl, wipe her from front to back to avoid a urinary tract infection
Image: Washing hands with soap and water The Mother or caregiver should always -
  • thoroughly wash hands before and after changing the nappy.
Image: Diaper rash

Image: Regular bath

Image: Applying diaper cream on diaper rash

Sometimes it could happen that a baby may suffer from Diaper rash.
  • diaper rash is a common concern
  • typically the rash is red and bumpy and
  • will go away in a few days with-
    • warm baths
    • some diaper cream
    • and at times without any diaper or nappy on the genital area
Image: Diaper rash

Image: A baby with wet nappy

Most rashes happen because the baby's skin is -
  • sensitive and
  • becomes irritated by the wet nappy.
Image: Diapering and diaper rash

Image: Cleaning the baby’s genital area

Image: Wipes

To prevent or treat diaper rash-
  • change the baby's nappy often, especially after bowel movements.
  • gently clean the area with a soft cloth and water
  • avoid using wipes as sometimes they can be irritating.

Image: Diaper rash cream

Image: a tub containing soapy water and nappies

Image: Newborn

  • Apply a very thick layer of diaper rash or "barrier" cream
  • Creams with zinc oxide are preferred-
    • as they form a barrier against moisture
  • Wash the baby’s nappies using dye and fragrance-free detergents.
  • Let the baby stay without a diaper or a nappy for part of the day.
    • this gives the skin a chance to air out.
Image: Diaper rash

GIF: Calendar

Image: Mother and doctor

  • Incase, the diaper rash continues for more than 3 days or seems to be getting worse-
    • please consult the doctor
    • it may be caused by a fungal infection that requires a prescription
Image: Sleeping baby

GIF: Clock

In the end, let’s discuss about baby’s sleeping pattern:
  • Babies sleep for around 14 to 16 hours or more, in a day
  • Newborns typically sleep for a period of 2–4 hours
Image: Sleeping baby

Image: Day and night

  • Many newborns have their days and nights "mixed up."
  • They tend to be awake and alert at night and sleepy during the day.
Image: Dim light in baby’s room

Image: A mother talking to a baby

  • One way to help them sleep more at night is to keep minimum stimulation at night
  • E.g., Keep the lights low by using a night lamp
  • And during the day time-
    • try to keep her awake a little longer by talking and playing with her.
Image: A baby sleeping on her back

Image: A baby sleeping on her tummy Image: Sudden infant death syndrome

The mother or caregiver should remember that-
  • a baby should always be on her back while sleeping
  • this reduces the risk of sudden infant death syndrome.
Image: A baby sleeping in the crib *For other safe sleeping practices, avoid using the following items in their crib -
    • Blankets
    • Quilts
    • Sheepskins
    • stuffed toys and
    • pillows
  • All these can suffocate the baby

Image: Changing the position of baby’s head while sleeping

Image: Flat spot

  • Also, be sure to alternate the position of the baby's head each night -
    • first right, then left, and so on
    • this will prevent the development of flat spot on one side of the baby’s head.
Acknowledgement slide This brings us to the end of this tutorial on Basics of newborn care

Thanks for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Bellatony911, Rajani st