Difference between revisions of "Apps-On-Physics/C2/Keplers-laws/English"

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|| Now we will move on to the next '''App'''.
 
|| Now we will move on to the next '''App'''.
 
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|| To open the '''App''' right click on '''keplerlaw2_en.htm''' and '''Open With Firefox Web Browser'''.
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|| To open the '''App''' right click on '''keplerlaw2_en.htm''' file and '''Open With Firefox Web Browser'''.
|| To open the '''App''' right click on '''keplerlaw2_en.htm''' and '''Open With Firefox Web Browser'''.
+
|| To open the '''App''' right click on '''keplerlaw2_en.htm''' file and '''Open With Firefox Web Browser'''.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|| Point to Kepler's second law within the pink box.
 
|| Point to Kepler's second law within the pink box.

Latest revision as of 11:31, 11 September 2019

Visual Cue Narration
Slide Number 1

Title Slide

Welcome to the Spoken Tutorial on Kepler's Law.
Slide Number 2

Learning objective

In this tutorial we will demonstrate,
  • Kepler's First Law and
  • Kepler's Second Law Apps.
Slide Number 3

System Requirements

Here I am using,
  • Ubuntu Linux OS version 16.04
  • Firefox web browser version 62.0.3
Slide Number 4

Pre-requities

https://spoken-tutorial.org

To follow this tutorial, learner should be familiar with Apps on Physics.

For pre-requisitie tutorials please visit this site.

Slide Number 5

Learning Goals

Using these Apps we will,
  • Demonstrate Kepler's first law
  • Calculate Aphelion and Perihelion distances
  • Demonstrate Kepler's second law
Slide Number 6

Link for Apps on physics .

https://www.walter-fendt.de/html5/phen

Use the given link to download the Apps.

https://www.walter-fendt.de/html5/phen

Point to the Downloads folder. I have already downloaded Apps on Physics to my Downloads folder.
Double click on html5phen folder.

Double click on phen folder.

Double click on html5phen folder, then double click on phen folder.
Right-click on keplerlaw1_en.htm file.

Select option Open With Firefox web Browser option.

Right-click on keplerlaw1_en.htm file.

Select the option Open With Firefox web Browser.

Kepler's First Law App opens in the browser.

Point to show the law in Pink colour. Here is the Kepler's First Law of undisturbed planetary motion.

It states that, The orbit of each planet is an ellipse and the Sun is at one focus.

Scroll down the screen. Let us scroll down the screen.
Point to the green panel. The green control panel shows the parameters that we can change.
Click on drop down list and point the planets and Halley's Comet.

Point and show Mercury.

From the drop down list select any planet or Halley's Comet.

By default Mercury is selected.

Point to Semimajor axis. Here we can change the Semimajor axis from 0.1 to 100 AU.
Highlight the wordings from the interface. These lengths are in astronomical units.

1AU = 1.495 X 10^11 m

This is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun.

Point to Numerical eccentricity. The Numerical eccentricity should be less than 1.
Point to Semiminor axis and Distance from the Sun. The App automatically calculates the Semiminor axis and Distance from the Sun.
Under Distance from the Sun point to Currently. Since the planet is revolving around the Sun, its current distance changes continuously.
Point to Minimum and Maximum Distance from the Sun.

Point to Minimum value.

Point to Maximum value.

The Mercury's Minimum and Maximum Distance from the Sun is measured.

Minimum measured value is 0.307 AU.

And Maximum measured value is 0.467 AU.

Move the cursor at the bottom of the green panel and point to Elliptical orbit.

Axes and Connecting lines check-box.

At the bottom of the green panel there are three check-boxes.

Elliptical orbit, Axes and Connecting lines.

Click on Elliptical orbit check-box. Click on Elliptical orbit check-box.
Point to the orbit and positions of Aphelion and Perihelion. Observe that the orbit now has two positions, namely Aphelion and Perihelion.
Click on Pause button. Click on Pause button to pause the simulation.
Point to the Maximum and Minimum under Distance from the Sun. Aphelion is the Maximum distance and Perihelion is the Minimum distance from the Sun.
Click on Connecting lines check-box. Select Connecting lines check-box.
Point to F and F prime. Here we can see the foci F and F prime of the elliptical orbit.
Point to the connecting lines and foci. Note that the connecting lines between the planet and the foci are drawn.
Click on Resume button. Click on the Resume button.
Select the Axes check-box. Select the Axes check-box.
Point to the lines. Here we can see that semi-major axis and semi-minor axis are drawn.
Cursor on the interface. Let us calculate the Aphelion and Perihelion distances of Mercury using the formula.
Slide Number 7

Aphelion and Perihelion Distance

Ra=a(1+e) Rp=a(1-e)

Where,

Ra is Aphelion distance (Maximum)

Rp is Perihelion distance(Minimum)

a is semimajor axis

e is eccentricity

Formula to calculate Aphelion and Perihelion distances:

Ra=a(1+e) Rp=a(1-e)

Where,

  • Ra is Aphelion distance.
  • Rp is Perihelion distance.
  • a is semi-major axis.
  • e is eccentricity.
Slide Number 8

Tabular Column

Let us make a tabular column to show planets, Eccentricity, Aphelion and Perihelion distances.
Slide Number 9

Aphelion and Perihelion Distances

Ra=a(1+e)

=0.387(1+0.206)

=0.466 AU

Rp=a(1-e)

=0.387(1-0.206)

=0.307 AU

Let us calculate the Maximum and Minimum distance of Mercury from the Sun.

Substitute the values of Semi-major axis and eccentricity in the formula from the App.

These are the calculated values of the Aphelion and Perihelion distances.

Now we will compare these values with the ones shown in the App.

Highlight the values of Minimum and Maximum distance. Observe that the values are comparable.
Open drop down list and select Venus. From the drop down I will select Venus.

Observe that the values have changed for Venus.

Slide Number 10

Tabular Column

Point to values of Minimum and Maximum distance.

Similarly I have calculated the Maximum and Minimum distance for Venus.

And entered these values in the table.

Slide Number 11

Assignment

Calculate the Aphelion and Perhelion distances of the other planets.

Use the values of semi-major axis and eccentricity shown in the App.

Complete the table and verify the values with the ones shown in the App.

As an assignment
  • Calculate the Aphelion and Perhelion distances of the other planets.
  • Use the values of semi-major axis and eccentricity shown in the App.
  • Complete the table and verify the values with the ones shown in the App.
Click on the drop down list and select the Halley’s comet. From the drop down list select Halley’s comet.
Point to show the orbit. Observe that the orbit of Halley’s comet is different from the other planets.
Point to the sun. It's orbit around the Sun is highly elliptical.
Point to numerical eccentricity. This is because the numerical eccentricity of the Halley’s comet is close to 1.
point to semi-major and semi-minor axis. Therefore there is a large difference in the values of semi-major and semi-minor axis.
Slide Number 12

Halley’s Comet

Halley’s comet is a periodic comet.

It returns to Earth’s vicinity in about every 75 years.

A comet appears as a bright head with a long tail.

The tail of a comet is always directed away from the Sun.

Let us know more about Halley’s comet.
  • Halley’s comet is a periodic comet.
  • It returns to Earth’s vicinity in about every 75 years.
  • A comet appears as a bright head with a long tail.
  • The tail of a comet is always directed away from the Sun.
Now we will move on to the next App.
To open the App right click on keplerlaw2_en.htm file and Open With Firefox Web Browser. To open the App right click on keplerlaw2_en.htm file and Open With Firefox Web Browser.
Point to Kepler's second law within the pink box. The App opens with Kepler's Second Law of the undisturbed planetary motion.
Highlight the Law from the simulation. The law states that,

The line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time.

Scroll down the screen. Scroll down to see the interface.
At the bottom of the green panel point to

Distance from the Sun and Velocity.

In the green control panel, App measures the Distance from the Sun and Velocity.
Point to Currently under Velocity. The current velocity of the planet is changing continuously as the planet is revolving.
Point to the Minimum and Maximum velocity. The Minimum and Maximum velocity of the planet is measured here.
Point to the Sectors and Vector of velocity check-boxes. At the bottom there are two check-boxes, Sectors and Vector of velocity.
Point to Sectors.

Drag and show the change.

By default Sectors is selected.

Next to the Sectors check-box, a slider is provided to change the area of the sector.

Click on Vector of velocity check-box. Select Vector of velocity.
Point to the vector. Here the black velocity vector shows the direction of velocity of the planet.
Point to show the Maximum velocity. The maximum velocity with which Mercury revolves is 59.1 km/s.
Point to the value of velocity.

From the drop down select Jupiter and point to the velocity.

Planets far away from Sun have less velocity as compared to the planets that are near.

  • Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun so it moves with a greater velocity.
  • Now I will show the velocity for Jupiter.
  • Select Jupiter from the drop down list.
  • Jupiter has less velocity than that of Mercury.
  • Planets far away from the Sun have less velocity as compared to the planets that are near.
cursor on the interface. This is because the Sun’s gravitational pull is stronger on the planets that are close to it.
Point to the two clocks.

Point to the “T “ to show the unit.

Observe the pink and green digital clocks.

They record the time when the planet sweeps the sectors.

This time is expressed in orbital period.

Drag the sector to show the changes. Let’s drag the sector slider to maximum.
Point to the clocks. Notice that as we increase the area, time increases.
Slide Number 13

Orbital period

The Orbital period is the time taken by the celestial object to go around the orbit of another celestial object.
Select Saturn from the drop down list.

Point to the pink and green clock which shows the sweep time.

Select the Saturn from the drop down list.

Observe that the sweep time for each sector in Saturn is same.

Slide Number 14

Assignment

Select planets Venus and Uranus from the drop down list.

Observe the difference in the velocity.

Explain your observation.

As an assignment

Select planets Venus and Uranus from the drop down list.

Observe the difference in the velocity.

Explain your observation.

Let us summarise
Slide Number 15

Summary

Using these Apps we have,
  • Demonstrated Kepler's First Law.
  • Calculated Aphelion and Perihelion distances.
  • Demonstrated Kepler's Second Law.
Slide Number 16


Acknowledgement

These Apps were created by Walter Fendt and his team.
Slide Number 17

About Spoken Tutorial project.

The video at the following link summarizes the Spoken Tutorial project.

Please download and watch it.

Slide Number 18

Spoken Tutorial workshops.

The Spoken Tutorial Project  team conducts workshops and gives certificates.

For more details, please write to us.

Slide Number 19

Forum for specific questions:

Do you have questions in THIS Spoken Tutorial?

Please visit this site

Choose the minute and second where you have the question. Explain your question briefly

Someone from our team will answer them

Please post your timed queries on this forum.
Slide Number 20

Acknowledgement

Spoken Tutorial Project is funded by MHRD, Government of India.
This is Himanshi Karwanje from IIT-Bombay.

Thank you for joining.

Contributors and Content Editors

Karwanjehimanshi95, Madhurig, Nancyvarkey, Snehalathak